Challenges and threats to international security
Lebedev S. —
The influence of oil on civil wars: the political economy paradigm
// World Politics.
– 2019. – ¹ 3.
– P. 1 - 7.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-8671.2019.3.30614 URL: https://en. nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=30614
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The research subject is the interconnection between oil wealth and political processes. The research object is the influence of hydrocarbons on ethnic conflicts. The author considers the ‘political’ dimension of the problem of resource curse and puts emphasis on the economic component of politics. There’s empirical data proving that the existence of ground or subsea oil or gas fields increases the probability of a civil war. At the same time, political and economic sciences still can’t explain this fact clearly and definitely. The main research paradigm is political economy with the rational choice methodology in the core. The author proceeds from the assumption that political actors try to analyze their profits and costs and make decisions based on this analysis. The article considers three explanations of the influence of oil on civil wars. Firstly, it’s a “honeypot effect”, when profits from hydrocarbons make official positions more enticing. Secondly, it’s the reduction of administrative competences of the state as a result of the resource curse. Thirdly, it’s the increase of probability of international intervention. The author concludes that the key conditions of a civil war are the low cost of a riot and the concentration of hydrocarbon wealth in one region which can be interested in separation.
gas, oil, civil war, honeypot effect, opportunity costs, political economy, rational choice, resource curse, separatism, hydrocarbon production
Ross Michael L. The Oil Curse, Princeton University Press, 2012
Fearon James, 2005. Primary Commodity Exports and Civil War. Journal of Conflict Resolution 49(4)
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Sarbahi Anoop, 2005. Major States, Neighbors and Civil Wars: A Dyadic Analysis of Third-party Intervention in Intra-State Wars. Unpublished Paper, University of California and Los-Angeles
Ponomarev N.V. —
Transformation of the approaches to using military and political channels of the U.S. international influence in the context of implementation of the energy strategy during Trump’s administration
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// World Politics.
– 2019. – ¹ 3.
– P. 8 - 18.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-8671.2019.3.30994 URL: https://en. nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=30994
The research object is the global energy strategy of Donald Trump’s administration in 2017 - 2019. The research subject is the military and political aspects of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy connected with the plans to gain energy dominance and ensure international regimes favorable for maintaining the U.S. global leadership in the field of energy security and via the mechanisms of international military cooperation which include regional systems of energy export safety military provision formed by the U.S. in the 1990s - 2000s. The research is based on the system-structural approach to the analysis of the evolution of the U.S. foreign policy strategy, comparative analysis of regional vectors of implementation of the U.S. energy strategy, and document analysis. The research novelty of the study is conditioned by the estimation of the change of the role of the military and political factor in the U.S. energy policy in the context of the transformation of the global oil and gas market and the exacerbation of rivalry between the global powers against the background of weakening of the U.S. global position.
The author notes both the continuation of policy towards the usage of the international military cooperation mechanisms for keeping control over the regimes of mining and transportation of carbohydrates on the global market, and the growing significance of military and political mechanisms of the U.S. influence aimed at furthering the U.S. interests as a liquified natural gas exporter. The decrease of the U.S. dependence on energy imports and the increase of its role as a huge exporter of natural gas do not lead to the reduction of the existing regional systems of military insurance of carbohydrates export. Competition for control over global energy flows management is still one of the key directions of the U.S. competition and independent centres of the forming polycentric global order.
Middle East, maritime commons, regional security, international military cooperation, energy security, US foreign policy, US energy strategy, Africa, Arctic, Indo-Pacific
Sylvan D., Majeski S. US Foreign Policy in Perspective: Clients, Enemies and Empire / D. Sylvan, S. Majeski. – N.Y.: Routledge, 2009. – 337 p.
Indo-Pacific Strategy Report. US Department of Defense. June 1, 2019. URL: https://media.defense.gov/2019/Jul/01/2002152311/-1/-1/1/DEPARTMENT-OF-DEFENSE-INDO-PACIFIC-STRATEGY-REPORT-2019.PDF
Stokes D., Raphael S. Global Energy Security and American Hegemony / D. Stokes, S. Raphael. – Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2010. – 280 p.
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