History of science and technology
Yashina A.V. —
Science as an instrument of the Soviet state building during the 1920’s – 1930’s
// Genesis: Historical research.
– 2019. – ¹ 10.
– P. 1 - 9.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-868X.2019.10.30923 URL: https://en. nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=30923
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Within the framework of this article, the author analyzes the state of national science and society during the period of drastic transformations of the 1920’s – 1930’s. Examination of problems of the history of science along with its impact upon the transformation of socio0cultiral and economic context, interaction between the scholars and government during the pivotal period of the Russian history, allows rationalizing the existing strategies for the new scientific and social breakthroughs. The author describes the main features of transformation of the organization of science in Russia during the period under consideration, as well as analyzes “science” through the prism of social design. The research leans on the theories, data and methods in the context of historical, philosophical, anthropological, politological and sociological studies of science, technologies and engineering. The conclusion is made that the Soviet government that perceived science as the major driving force of not only of economic, but also social and political progress, established new requirements to the academic community and adjusted the conditions of its existence and functioning, which allowed the authorities to ensure the essential foundation for the economic development and social changes. The early Soviet period was characterized not only by the emergence of the new institutional form for the science, but also mobilization of the country’s scientific potential, experimental and, at times, revolutionary scientific projects. At the same time, excessive indoctrination of science, repressive and utilitarian nature of government turned science into the mechanism for implementation of their political objectives “here and now”, rather than the institution of the development of knowledge.
academic community, NEP, early soviet society, USSR, science and power, science in USSR, new society, History of science, management of science, research science
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