History of ethnicities, peoples, nations
Galstyan M.S., Gaysina L.R. —
The Armenian Community in Russian Turkestan and the Development of Industries in the Transcaspian Region (Last Third of the 19th Century Beginning of the 20th Century)
// History magazine - researches. – 2017. – Ή 4.
– P. 1 - 7.
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Review: The subject of this research is one aspect of the economic activity of the Armenian community in Russian Turkestan, namely, the development of the fishing and salt industries. The Armenian community in Central Asia was established following the entry of this region into the Russian Empire and, despite its small number of members, became very influential in the economic sphere there. The greater part of the Armenian population was concentrated in the Transcaspian region of the Turkestan territory and it was precisely there that they played a key role in the most diverse spheres of economic activity. The main methods of research applied in this research, apart from general scientific ones, are the historical-comparative, historical-typological and historical-systematic methods, which allow to study the economic activity of the Armenians in Central Asia in its evolution, while considering the multitude of factors that influenced it. On the basis of a wide range of sources, the article analyzes for the first time in scientific research the role of the Armenian community in the conception and formation of the fishing and salt industries in the Transcaspian regions of Russian Turkestan. Armenian industrialists and merchants organized in the Transcaspian region commercial fishing and a salt industry, which became a very profitable activity for the local population as well. Despite its small population, the Armenian community continued to play a key role in these industries up to the Russian Revolution.
Keywords: Central Asia, fishing cooperatives, salt industry, fishing companies, Russian Turkestan, Russian policy of Turkestan, Transcaspian region, fishing industry, Turkestanskiy krai, Armenian community of Turkestan
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FACTORS OF HISTORICAL PROCESS
Apal'kov D.I. —
The Intraparty Struggle and the Mechanisms of the Collective Rule of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in 1928 Early 1929
// History magazine - researches. – 2017. – Ή 4.
– P. 8 - 23.
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Review: This article is devoted to the confrontation between the Stalinist "revolution from above" and the "Bukharin alternative" through the prism of the functioning of the collective rule of the Bolshevik party. The subject of this research is the influence of the traditions and mechanisms of the collective rule on the intraparty struggle, as well as the evolution of the informal relations and balance of forces within the "steering group" of the Bolshevik party under the conditions of the intraparty struggle during the period from 1928 to early 1929. Understanding these aspects of the intraparty struggle is a necessary condition for obtaining a full answer to the questions of how real the "Bukharin alternative" was to Stalinism and how inevitable was the final destruction of the collective rule and the beginning of the formation of Stalin’s dictatorship? The methodological basis of the study is the historical-genetic method, which allows to reveal the cause-and-effect relations and regularities of the evolving confrontation between Stalin and "Bukharin’s group". The scientific novelty of this research lies in it presenting the issue of the intraparty struggle of the late 1920s with a new perspective and attracting new archival materials, fully revealing the essence of the informal ("shadow") side of the intraparty struggle. The author comes to the conclusion that the balance of forces that existed in the upper echelon of the Bolshevik party in 1928 conditioned the significant influence of the traditions and mechanisms of the collective rule on the intraparty struggle. In fact, the defeat of the "Bukharin alternative" and the final destruction of the collective rule became possible only after Stalin, taking advantage of the gross political mistake made by Bukharin, rallied around him the majority of the "steering group" of the party.
Keywords: collective rule, Politburo, revolution from above, Bukharin alternative, New Economic Policy, emergency methods of grain procurement, peasant uprisings, discussions, Bolshevik party, intraparty struggle
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