Psychology and pedagogics
Chernov D.N. —
Actual Problems of Language Training in the "Zone of Proximal Development" of Schoolchildren
// Psychologist. – 2017. – ¹ 5.
– P. 67 - 76.
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Review: The subject of this research is the language training in the "zone of proximal development" at school age. The aim of this work is analyze the possibility of using quasilanguage tools to create the training programs to Russian rules in terms of establishing of a subject-subject interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild. The origins of the use of artificial language construction for the purpose of updating the creative potential of the recipient in literature (based on the example of writings by Lewis Carroll, 'mind-bending' language of futurists, modern children's story writers) and demonstration of the significant potential of grammar to convey meaning of sentences (L. Scherba, N. Khomsky) were analyzed. It was shown that experimentation with the language rules is a natural stage of child language development (in particular, during the period of children's word creation). The analysis of the current diagnostic and training techniques that use artificial language material with the purpose of updating the language of creativity of the child was performed. In his research Chernov has come to the following conclusions. Language learning at school must actualize the creative potential of language acquisition. Effective teaching technique is the use of artificial words, rules of inflection which are similar to the Russian rules, and use of artificial sentences and texts in which the combination of quasiwords is similar to the rules of Russian grammar. The balance between spontaneous and reactive training in the use of such language material is possible when the interaction between a teacher and a schoolchild is like the cooperation in the "zone of proximal development" of the child.
Keywords: schoolchild, subject-subject interaction, speech, quasilanguage, quasiwords, zone of proximal development, grammar, language, linguistic creativity, language training
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Psychopathology of the mundane
Murashchenkova N.V., Gritsenko V.V., Brazhnik Yu.V. —
Psychological Analysis of Expectations of Russians to Russia from the Ukraine and Other Countries
// Psychologist. – 2017. – ¹ 5.
– P. 77 - 91.
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Review: The article presents part of the results of a complex empirical research of socio-psychological adaptation of Russians migrating to Russia from other countries. The research involved 228 people (107 men and 121 women aged 17 - 63 years old, M=29.59, SD=9.54). Respondents from the Ukraine (Donetsk and Lugansk Regions) were 112 people (51 men and 61 women) and respondents from other countries (Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldavia, Tadjikistan, Turkeminstan, and Uzbekistan) were 116 people (56 men and 60 women). The purpose of the research was to analyze their expectations under the conditions of their socio-psychological adaptation to living in Russia. The authors make an assumption that those who come from the Ukraine and other countries have different expectations as a result of the former's forced and fast migration caused by the military conflict in the Ukraine. Empirical data was collected using the opinion poll. In particular, the authors have analyzed data obtained using free-answer and yes-no questions that respondents answered as part of the questionnaire prepared by the authors. Data were processed using the methods of descriptive statistics, frequency and content analysis, and Fisher angular transformation (φ* criteria). As a result of this empirical research, the authors have discovered differences in migrants' expectations of those who came from the Ukraine and those who came from other countries. Migrants from the Ukraine more frequently tended to expect help and support from others than from themselves and were in a greater need of information, help with employment and accomodation. They also believed they needed compensations from the government of the country they had left and had a better idea of what help and support they could use from the receiving country to adapt to life in Russia. On the whole, expectations of the majority of those who came from the Ukraine and other countries have been satisfied. Many of them had realistic expectations and the right idea of conditions, advantages and challenges they would have in Russia which was most likely to be one of the factors of their successful adaptation (based on self-reports of respondents). However, the results have also demonstrated that respondents felt their adaptation was incomplete or were too focused on challenges and negative emotions experienced in the process of their adaptation which could cause additional emotional tension and make them seek for social and psychological assistance. Another traumatic and destructive feeling that could hinder their successful socio-psychological adaptation was their expectations of conflicts from the local population. The results of the research can be used as guidelines to improve socio-psychological adaptation of migrants as well as to create a program of psychological assistance of migrants from the former Soviet republics.
Keywords: socio-psychological adaptation, migrants' expectations, conflicts, social and psychological support of migrants, content analysis, Fisher angular transformation, Russian migrants, voluntary migration, forced migration, migration
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