Tyugashev E.A. —
Philosophy as a sociocultural phenomenon
// Philosophical Thought. – 2017. – ¹ 10.
– P. 1 - 8.
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Review: The object of this research is the philosophical phenomenon, which within the social philosophy is traditionally described as a form of public consciousness, and lately – as self-consciousness of the culture. It is suggested to identify these descriptions as sociocentrism and culturocentrism in interpretation of the phenomenon of philosophy. Culturocentric interpretation of philosophy is viewed as problematic due to the fact that often perceives the emergence of philosophy only in separate cultural centers; as well as using the definition of culture as a system of programs, does not reveal the mechanism of establishment of self-consciousness within such system of programs. Thus, is relevant the critical reflection of culturocentrism and its alignment with the position of sociocentrism in describing philosophy as a sociocultural phenomenon. The dilemma of sociocentrism and culturocentrism is resolved based on using the sociocultural approach in its reflective interpretation. Such interpretation leans of the public historical understanding of culture as a specific historical version of evolution of the society, as well as proposes considering the society as an ensemble of interacting cultures; while sociocultural – as a social in the cultural diversity. The conducted analysis of the concept of philosophy as the culture’s self-consciousness allows concluding that the establishment of self-consciousness of such subject requires realization within the framework of external reflection of cultures, in other words, among the interacting ethno-social organisms. The practical, ordinary philosophy emerges in practice of sociocultural mediation. For the complex of social organisms that comprise a civilization, the professional philosophers fixate in abstract general form of establishment of the world structure in such form as they are grasped in the civilizational experience. Professional philosophy manifests as self-consciousness and reflection not of just local culture, but rather cultures that claim to achieve the scale of world civilizations. This circumstances explains the existence of the centers of origin of philosophy, namely the institutionalized professional philosophical activity within the contact zones of the largest civilizations.
Keywords: spirituo-practical activity, professional philosophy, cultural centrism, sociocentrism, sociocultural phenomenon, sociocultural approach, philosophy, metaphilosophy, ordinary philosophy, sociocultural mediation
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Question at hand
Ivanova M.G. —
Socio-philosophical analysis of the national archetypes of Russia
// Philosophical Thought. – 2017. – ¹ 10.
– P. 9 - 17.
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Review: This article analyzes the methodological issues of the study of archetypes of the Russian political culture. The author proceeds from the assumption that the hidden patterns and foundations of the collective unconsciousness have significant impact upon the world political culture, including Russia. It is demonstrated that analysis of the content of the collective unconsciousness is heuristically justified to realize based on the examination of in-depth essence of the traditions of national culture, which makes relevant the problem of formulating a valid interdisciplinary methodological apparatus adequate to the problem at hand. Using the analyzed in the article philosophical approaches of C. G. Jung, S. A. Nizhnikov, and A. E. Lukyanov, the author suggests highlighting the basic archetypes of the Russian culture, through which it becomes possible to analyze the political and social phenomena. The conclusion is made about the high heuristic potential of the theory of archetypes and the need for its further development on the basis of interdisciplinary and inter-paradigmatic scientific synthesis. In particular, the article explores the archetypes of Truth, Way, Faith and Death/Rebirth. The approach, proposed by the author, can be applied as a universal method for studying of the archetypes in national cultures.
Keywords: archetype of the hero, methodology, political archetype, spiritual archetype, culture, Carl Jung, archetype, selfhood, transformation, political culture
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