Рус Eng During last 365 days Approved articles: 1902,   Articles in work: 306 Declined articles: 797 
Library
Articles and journals | Tariffs | Payments | Your profile

Back to contents

Soviet as imperial: an attempt of problematization
Letnyakov Denis Eduardovich

PhD in Politics

Senior Scientific Associate, Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences

109240, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Goncharnaya, 12, str. 1, of. 411

letnyakov@mail.ru
Другие публикации этого автора
 

 

Abstract.

The “national question” relates to such spheres of social life in which the October Revolution demonstrated the most drastic gap with the “old order”; the Soviet government has acquired the anti-colonial, anti-imperial language of self-description. However, the academic studies of the recent twenty five years mark the prevalence of representations on the imperial natural of the Soviet State (image of USSR as the “last empire” has become ingrained in the academic discourse; the post-colonial studies apprehend the post-Soviet space as a legitimate sphere of their scientific interest). The author sets a goal to problematize such approach, thus analyzes the very concept of the “empire”, examines separate aspects of the history of Soviet period, and reconstructs the identity of a Soviet person. A conclusion is made that in a number of cases, the application of the imperial paradigm in describing the Soviet realities rather impedes the adequate comprehension of the latter, because the practices of dominance and administration in USSR, language, cultural, and economic policy, identities of people and their everyday experience cannot be reduced to the imperial and colonial.

Keywords: Communism, postcolonial studies, nationalism, nation, Soviet Union, colonialism, empire, revolution, the Bolsheviks, identity

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0684.2018.1.25409

Article was received:

09-02-2018


Review date:

09-02-2018


Publish date:

12-02-2018


This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

References
1.
Moore D.Ch. Is the Post-in Postcolonial the Post-in Post-Soviet? Toward a Global Postcolonial Critique // Publications of the Modern Language Association of America. 2001. Jan. Vol. 116. No. 1. Pp. 111—128; Gleason G. Independence and Decolonization in Central Asia // Asian Perspective. Vol. 21. No. 2, Special Issue on APEC (Fall 1997). Pp. 223-246; Adams L. Primenima li postkolonial'naya teoriya k Tsentral'noi Evrazii // Neprikosnovennyi zapas. 2009, № 4(66). Elektronnyi dostup: http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2009/4/am5.html.
2.
Martin T. The affirmative action empire: nations and nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press, 2001. 496 pp.
3.
Motyl' A. Puti imperii: upadok, krakh i vozrozhdenie imperskii gosudarstv. M.: «Moskovskaya shkola politicheskikh issledovanii», 2004. S. 11-12.
4.
Suni R. Dialektika imperii: Rossiya i Sovetskii Soyuz // Novaya imperskaya istoriya postsovetskogo prostranstva / Pod red. I.V. Gerasimova, S.V. Glebova, A.R. Kaplunovskogo, M.B. Mogil'ner, A.M. Semenova. Kazan': «Tsentr issledovanii natsionalizma i imperii», 2004. S. 167.
5.
Strayer R. Decolonization, Democratization, and Communist Reform: The Soviet Collapse in Comparative Perspective // Journal of World History. Vol. 12. No. 2 (Fall, 2001). P. 377.
6.
Beissinger M. The Persisting Ambiguity of Empire: State-and Empire-Building in Post-Soviet Politics. Accessed at: https://www.ucis.pitt.edu/nceeer/1995-807-14-Beissinger.pdf. R. 6.
7.
Tishkov V. Chto est' Rossiya i rossiiskii narod // Pro et Contra. Vol. 11. No 3 (mai-iyun', 2007). S. 24.
8.
Beissinger M. The Persistence of Empire in Eurasia // NewsNet. Jan. 2008. Vol. 48. N 1. P. 4.
9.
Beissinger M. Soviet Empire as “Family Resemblance” // Slavic Review. Vol. 65. No. 2 (Summer, 2006). Pp. 294-303.
10.
Beissinger M. Nationalist mobilization and the collapse of the Soviet State. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2002. 503 pp.; Suny R.G. The revenge of the past: Nationalism, revolution, and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Stanford: Stanford university press, 1993. 200 pp.; Roeder Ph. G. Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization // World Politics. Vol. 43. No. 2 (Jan., 1991). Pp. 196-232.
11.
Solzhenitsyn A.I. Kak nam obustroit' Rossiyu? // Solzhenitsyn A.I. Publitsistika: v 3 t. Yaroslavl': Verkhne-Volzhskoe knizhnoe izdatel'stvo, 1995. T.1, s. 542.
12.
Sahadeo J. Soviet “Blacks” and Place Making in Leningrad and Moscow // Slavic Review. Vol. 71. No. 2 (Summer 2012). P. 337.
13.
Solchanyk R. Russian Language and Soviet Politics // Soviet Studies. Vol. 34. No 1. 1982. P. 25.
14.
Gellner E. Natsii i natsionalizm. M.: Progress, 1991. 319 s.
15.
Motyl' A. Puti imperii: upadok, krakh i vozrozhdenie imperskii gosudarstv. M.: «Moskovskaya shkola politicheskikh issledovanii», 2004. S. 13.
16.
Roeder Ph. G. Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization // World Politics. Vol. 43. No. 2 (Jan., 1991). P. 216.
17.
Epshtein D. Sovetskii patriotizm: 1985-1991 // Natsionalizm v pozdne-i postkommunisticheskoi Evrope: v 3 t. / Pod obshch. red. E. Yana. M.: ROSSPEN, 2010. T.1, s. 242.
18.
Drobizheva L.M. Dukhovnaya obshchnost' narodov SSSR. Istoriko-sotsiologicheskii ocherk mezhnatsional'nykh otnoshenii. M.: «Mysl'», 1981. S. 137-138.
19.
Berdyaev N.A. Istoki i smysl russkogo kommunizma. SPb: Azbuka, 2016. 221 s.
20.
Paips R. Rossiya pri bol'shevikakh. M.: ROSSPEN, 1997. S. 170-199.
21.
Mouradian C. The Origins of a Colonial Vision of Southern Russia From the Tsars to the Soviets: About Some Imperial Practices in the Caucasus // Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Migration, Democratisation and Inequality in the Post-Soviet Era / Sophie Hohmann, Clair Mouradian, Silvia Serrano and Julien Thorez, eds. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. Pp. 17-46.
22.
Martin T. The affirmative action empire: nations and nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939. Ithaca, London: Cornell University Press, 2001. 496 pp; Slezkine Y. The USSR as a Communal Apartment, or How a Socialist State Promoted Ethnic Particularism // Slavic Review. 1994. Vol. 53. No. 2. Pp. 414-452; Brubaker R. Nationhood and the National Question in the Soviet Union and Post-Soviet Eurasia: An Institutionalist Account // Theory and Society. Vol. 23, No. 1 (Feb., 1994). Pp. 47-78.
23.
Alpatov V.M. 150 yazykov i politika: 1917-1997. M.: Institut vostokovedeniya RAN, 1997. 190 s.
24.
Martin T. Imperiya «polozhitel'noi deyatel'nosti». Natsii i natsionalizm v SSSR, 1923-1939. M.: ROSSPEN; Fond «Prezidentskii tsentr B.N. El'tsina», 2011. S. 10-21.
25.
Brandenberger D.L. Natsional-bol'shevizm. Stalinskaya massovaya kul'tura i formirovanie russkogo natsional'nogo samosoznaniya. 1931-1956. SPb: Akademicheskii proekt; Izd-vo DNK, 2009. 415 s.
26.
Lapidus G.W. Ethnonationalism and Political Stability: The Soviet Case // World Politics. Vol. 36. No. 4 (Jul., 1984). Pp. 563-564.
27.
Lipset H. The Status of National Minority Languages in Soviet Education // Soviet Studies. Vol. 19. No. 2 (Oct., 1967). P. 185.
28.
Amanzholova D. Sovetskii narod – istoricheskaya real'nost' ili fantom? // Vestnik Rossiiskoi natsii. 2014. №4. S. 25.
29.
Roeder Ph.G. Soviet Federalism and Ethnic Mobilization // World Politics, Vol. 43, No. 2 (Jan., 1991). P. 204.
30.
Ibid. P. 208.
31.
Napreenko G. Korenizatsiya. Prosveshchenie. Velikorusskii shovinizm. Elektronnyi dostup: http://www.colta.ru/articles/raznoglasiya/10884.
32.
Gorak S. V poiskakh istorii Tadzhikistana: o chem tadzhikskie istoriki sporyat s uzbekskimi? // Neprikosnovennyi zapas. 2009. № 4(66). Elektronnyi dostup: http://magazines.russ.ru/nz/2009/4/go7.html
33.
Abashin S. Nation-construction in post-Soviet Central Asia // Soviet and post-Soviet identities. Ed. by M. Bassin. Cambridge University Press, 2012. Pr. 152-153.
34.
Khalid A. Uzbekistan: rozhdenie natsii // Neprikosnovennyi zapas. 2011. № 4(78). S. 34-46.
35.
Chida T. ‘Trust in Cadres’ and the Party-Based Control in Central Asia during the Brezhnev Era // Development in Central Asia and the Caucasus: Migration, Democratisation and Inequality in the Post-Soviet Era / Sophie Hohmann, Clair Mouradian, Silvia Serrano and Julien Thorez, eds. London: I.B. Tauris, 2014. Pp. 47-79.
36.
Napreenko G. Korenizatsiya. Prosveshchenie. Velikorusskii shovinizm. Elektronnyi dostup: http://www.colta.ru/articles/raznoglasiya/10884.
37.
V poiskakh novoi imperskoi istorii // Novaya imperskaya istoriya postsovetskogo prostranstva / Pod red. I.V. Gerasimova, S.V. Glebova, A.R. Kaplunovskogo, M.B. Mogil'ner, A.M. Semenova. Kazan': «Tsentr issledovanii natsionalizma i imperii», 2004. S. 26.
38.
Nairn T. The Break-up of Britain: Crisis and Neo-nationalism. London: New Left Books, 1977. 368 pp.