Natural resources of the Arctic and Antarctica
Chizhova J.N., Budantseva N.A., Vasil'chuk Y.K. —
Heavy metals of the Polar Urals and the Caucasus glaciers
// Arctic and Antarctica. – 2017. – ¹ 1.
– P. 35 - 46.
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Review: The authors of the present work consider heavy metals content in the snow cover and glacial ice of the Polar Urals and the vicinity of the Mt. Elbrus region (Central Caucasus). In order to define the background hydrochemical constitution of the snow cover of the Polar Ural region in 1999, the authors study three snowfields, near the Polar Ural village, 2.5 km and 5 km from it; in the winter of 2003 near the Polarny settlement the authors explored the structure of the snow layer in the trial pit. In 2000, a small glacier (Glacier No.1) located in the on the slope of the southern aspect, was studied on the slope of the Small Paipudynsky ridge. In the Central Caucasus, studies were carried out on the glacier of Garabashi in the southern slope of Elbrus, the snow layers were studied during the summer and winter seasons: in the summer of 1998, in January 2001 and in June 2001. Glacier ice of the Greater Azau glacier was also studied. Analytic measurements of the trace elements content (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn) were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy at the V.V.Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute. The concentrations of trace elements in snow and glacial ice of the Polar Urals are small, averaging 0.005 to 0.02 mg / l, among the measured Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, the highest concentrations are typical for Mn (up to 0.05 mg / l). An insignificant increase in the concentrations of heavy metals in the winter snow-summer snow-glacial ice series was noted. Dependences of the concentration of heavy metals on the morphological species of ice were not detected. For the snow cover and the glacial ice of Garabashi glacier and the adjacent slope there is also a certain tendency of increasing concentrations in the winter snow series to summer surface snow and to infiltration ice. The main minor elements in the snow and ice of the Garabashi glacier in the Caucasus are zinc and iron, the concentrations of which range from less than 0.02 to 0.6 mg / l (iron in infiltration ice) and from 0.01 to 0.22 in ice. The maximum content of heavy metals is confined to the horizons of infiltration ice. In seasonal winter and summer snow, the concentrations of almost all measured trace elements range from less than 0.01 to 0.03 mg / l. In the ice of the Big Azau glacier in the Elbrus region, the concentrations of trace elements are extremely low (less than 0.005 mg / l).
Keywords: pollution, Anthropogenic, Seasonality, Caucasus, The Polar Urals, glaciers, ice, snow, heavy metals, reference areas
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