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Politics and Society
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Theory and practice of civil identity formation: the experience of Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov Region

Sokolova Alla Nikolaevna

Doctor of Art History

Doctor of Art History, Leading Researcher of the Southern Branch of the Russian Scientific Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage named after D.S. Likhachev; Professor of the Adyghe State University

385008, Russia, the Republic of Adygea, Maykop, Pervomaiskaya Street 208, office #14

professor_sokolova@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Tretyakova Elena Yur'evna

ORCID: 0000-0001-9715-7378

Doctor of Philology

Leading Researcher, Southern Branch of the Russian Research Institute of Cultural and Natural Heritage named after. D. Likhacheva

352000, Russia, Krasnodar Territory, Krasnodar, Krasnaya str., 28

drevo_rechi@mail.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0684.2024.1.69710

EDN:

SBWZEH

Received:

30-01-2024


Published:

31-03-2024


Abstract: The object of the study is the official documents of the Government of Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region, defining the strategy of state policy in relation to the formation and strengthening of civic identity, as well as the practice of implementing this policy through content analysis of the activities of various civil institutions. More than 150 ethnic groups live in the Rostov region. The population is more than 4 million people. According to the 2020 census, approximately 90% identified themselves as Russians; slightly more than 2% as Armenians, and even fewer as Ukrainians. Rostov-on-Don is today a border city with a difficult social situation, although in the Soviet years it was a large industrial, scientific, educational and cultural center of the country with attractive climatic and economic conditions. The purpose of the study is to reveal the forms of interaction between theorists and practitioners who comprehend and work on issues of building and strengthening civic identity in the region, demonstrating the positive results of this cooperation and discussing the problems that arise along the way.The research methods are content analysis of the websites of the Government of the Rostov Region and its pages on the VKontakte portal, the official websites of the Southern Federal University and the Don State Technological University; the Taganrog News Agency "My Taganrog"; the websites of the Military Cossack Society "All-Great Army of the Don"; the Central City Public Library named after A. P. Chekhov (Taganrog); and others. Summarizing the content analysis, the authors point to the need for closer interaction between representatives of the scientific elite and officials, especially in terms of developing regional strategies on interethnic relations and youth policy; the need to intensify the work of national cultural communities in the region; strengthening responsibility for the reliability of sociological research; ending the practice of assessing the importance of the work done by the number of participants in events; using Internet portals of municipalities are not only used to cover the work of housing and communal services, but also for socially significant events with a patriotic and civic solidarity orientation. The research is promising both in terms of expanding the scientific field, including data from portals of cities, districts, rural settlements, secondary schools, mass media (including radio and television) in content analysis; and in terms of "deepening" the research, involving the analysis of reporting documentation from various government departments and civil institutions.


Keywords:

Rostov-on-Don, Rostov region, civil identity, national-civic identity, volunteering, patriotism, youth policy, development strategies, content analysis, ethnic identity

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction. The problem of civic identity in Russia has been and remains acute and relevant. Probably, the discussion of this issue can be permanent, since, firstly, the very concept of "civil identity" does not have clear and generally recognized "boundaries", they are constantly being debated, the concept is fragmented into more and more clarifying elements and, secondly, it is proved that civil identity flexibly reflects on any political and socio-cultural changes in the country. Civil identity is often called "dormant", revealing itself in certain circumstances. Nevertheless, considerable financial investments are allocated annually for the formation and strengthening of civic identity in the country, and the effectiveness of the measures taken requires constant monitoring. This article will consider the theoretical issues of building a civic identity relevant to Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region; federal and regional programs, as well as regulatory documents regulating practical work in this direction.

Content analysis of sociological research by scientists from Rostov-on-Don. In Rostov-on-Don, the Institute of Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences has been studying issues of civil identity for quite a long time, often in cooperation with scientists from Adygea and Moscow (Yu.A. Zhdanov played a huge role in establishing strong permanent ties with the scientific world of the North Caucasus at one time). The array of publications of this collective is quite indicative for understanding the general situation with the scientific analysis of the problems of civic identity. For this reason, we found it necessary to analyze the most informative excerpts from the works of F. Barkov, K. Vodenko, Yu. Volkov, V. Gurb, I. Guskov, G. Denisova, S. Makushenko, V. Rodionova, A. Serikov, V. Chernous, G. Chikarova. We will also involve other works on the structure, types, mechanisms of formation, factors and determinants of civic identity.

The need to study the phenomenon and the request for "identity politics" (M. Gorshkov) do not weaken moreover, in conditions of social and economic instability, it is becoming relevant. Various scientific institutions are commissioned to carry out research on a state order (for example, we find in open access articles on state assignment No. 122120200080-4 on the topic "Civil and ethnocultural identity of youth: value bases and determinants of formation in conditions of uncertainty") [1]. G. I. Chikarova explains the request for a theoretical and empirical understanding of the civil identity of Russian youth the high degree of migration intentions of young people and the fact that this socio-demographic group demonstrates a lower level of trust in government than older generational groups [2]. At the same time, in her opinion, the values are partially consonant with the ideals prescribed in the country's normative documents; the emotional component of civic identity has been formed. In the behavioral component of civic identity, civil and political motivation for the implementation of practices in the field of environmental conservation is fixed. The cognitive component of civic identity and the motivation of students to participate in civic and political activities are insufficiently formed. According to a survey of youth aged 16-24 (about 3,000 residents of Rostov-on-Don), researcher V.A. Fedotova states that a third of respondents do not know the Anthem of Russia, have not read the Constitution; more than half do not go to the polls, because they consider their results to be predictable [3].

The analysis of scientific articles shows that the scientific community is actively searching for measures to develop tools for assessing the levels and quality of formation of civic identity in society. By no means all authors are able to make a high-quality examination without replacing it with complimentary declarations or scribbling.

T. V. Bugaichuk and O. A. Koryakovtseva read about 24 parameters of civic identity, each of which begins with the words: readiness, desire, knowledge, intolerance, recognition, responsibility [4, p. 8]. It can be seen that the boundaries of the phenomenon and the hierarchy of the internal structure of the studied subject are somewhat blurred, which destroys the hierarchy of its structure. Why was the "feeling of belonging to the world community" previously named in the list as "feeling of belonging to a multinational Russian society"? Is it because the authors, building an abstract, abstract system, put forward the level of the "world community" and only after it mention the level of self-identification of the "Russian community", well, the third is called the level of "belonging to an ethnic group". As we can see, the proposed "priority ladder" proceeds from Western interpretations of the relevant issues and requires revision. At the same time, the search for real criteria for evaluating the subject under study is also obvious.

The marking characteristic of civic identity, as a rule, is patriotism. Rostov scientists have revealed that patriotism, in the opinion of modern Russians, is: "military service, unwillingness to leave Russia, love and pride for their country, support for the country's political leadership, active citizenship, conscientious work, participation in rallies, charity" [5, p. 105]. Offering different age groups of Rostov youth the question: "In your opinion, what values and principles unite all Russian citizens into a single nation today?", G. S. Denisova found that 37% of young people aged 18-24 and 40% of 25-29 years old noted patriotism in their answers [6, p. 120]. Russian citizenship, the author sums up, "is understood by young people simultaneously as the legal status of an individual (to be a citizen according to a passport), as personal involvement in Russian culture and as a personal professional contribution to the development of Russia (social activism)" [6, p. 121]. Other authors also emphasize the lack of a clear civic position among young people and insufficient knowledge about neighboring peoples and their cultural values [5, p. 108]. Back in 2013, a group of scientists from Rostov-on-Don categorically spoke about all the youth of the Rostov region: "... they are experiencing a serious vacuum of unifying social development goals, a shortage of positive identification symbols" [7, p. 59].

Often, researchers, having constructed a reference image of a person endowed with citizenship, try to compare the standard with real data from sociological surveys. When compiling questionnaires, the structure of civil identity looks different, or civil identity is put on a par with professional, ethnic identity. Let's show this by the example of an article by Prof. G. S. Denisova. The researcher presented a survey of two age groups (18-24 and 25-30 years old). The author writes about "the dominance of the all-Russian identity in these two youth groups. As the main one, it was singled out by 70% of young people under the age of 25, 72% under the age of 30" [6, p. 118]. Further in the article we read: "... it should be emphasized that the respondents of both groups indicated the very important and important importance of ethnic identity for themselves. The sum of these two responses for each group was 72 and 71%, respectively" [6, p. 118]. Based on the results of this survey, it was concluded that in their collective representations of the youth of the Rostov region, civil identity is understood in a multicomponent way: legally, culturally and actively [6, p. 119]. The dominance of ethnic identity over the all-Russian one in the North Caucasus is noted by almost all researchers of this problem.

Russian scientists L. M.Drobizheva [8] and D. V. Monastyrsky [9] consider it expedient to distinguish between state and civil identities. Picking up on this idea, Yu. Volkov and his associates put forward additional arguments in favor of such a distinction. They point out that state identity is formed "from top to bottom", and civil identity is formed from below, through selforganization [1, p. 64].

T. Vodolazhskaya in the structure of the collective civic community calls the following the most significant: "1) common historical past (common destiny)...; 2) self-designation of the civic community; 3) common language...; 4) common culture (political, legal, economic)...; 5) the experience of joint emotional states by this community, especially those related to real political actions" [10, p. 141].

The scientific group of Yu. Volkov uses the concept of "habitus of civic identity" and identifies three groups of factors of its formation among young people: "culture based on certain norms and values; patriotism and patriotic education of youth; historical memory" [1, p. 60]. On this basis, a cognitive model of the formation of a student's civic identity is built, where "the external aspect is social, transmitting norms, values and patterns of behavior, and the internal one is personal, responsible for their assimilation and demonstration, for the need to be recognized and accepted by any group" [1, p. 64].

We have given a number of examples to show: dissecting the phenomenon of civic identity, researchers break it up into smaller and smaller components and "juggle" the data of opinion polls, which does not allow us to judge in a holistic format the formation / nonformation of civic identity - neither all-Russian nor regional. Rostov-on-Don scientists have developed several models for the formation and strengthening of civic identity in the region. A scientific approach in these processes must be used, but this requires not only festivals and holidays, but serious ideological work to create conditions for fraternal cooperation between peoples and instrumental support for their unity.

Analysis of the work of Ministries and departments responsible for interethnic relations and civil solidarity. On the official portal of the Government of the Rostov region there is a Resolution dated 10/19/2020 No. 100 On the approval of the state program of the Rostov region "Youth policy and social activity" (valid as amended on 11/20/2023) [11]. The state program is designed for two stages of implementation: the first (2021) and the second (2022-2030), the financing of which in 2024 will amount to 212 235.8 thousand rubles. Among the expected results by 2030, it is expected to form a stable and extensive youth policy infrastructure in the Rostov region. Three of its four Subprograms (Subprograms 2, 3 and 4) are directly aimed at fostering an active citizenship of the younger generations. As a result of its implementation, it is planned to increase the number of young people involved in patriotic projects, support youth initiatives, and actively develop volunteerism. At the same time, the document pays special attention to the fact that in order to increase interest in the issues of patriotic and civic education of young people, it is necessary to strengthen propaganda activities, especially using Internet resources.

This program document is formulated much more thoroughly than the "Concept of the formation of an all-Russian civic identity among children and youth of the Rostov Region" (hereinafter the Concept), approved by the Decree of the Government of the Republic of Tatarstan dated 02/19/2015 N 123 and effective as amended on 04/05/2021 [12]. One part of the tasks outlined in the Concept was assigned to government structures and public organizations, the other to the media, cultural, educational and educational institutions.

The role of the family and informal associations was practically not highlighted. Meanwhile, in the works of scientists from Rostov-on-Don (V. I. Rodionov, S. A. Makushenko), it was emphasized that all values, including civil ones, are formed primarily in the family and under the influence of family upbringing and family experience, family conversations, even if they are not directly addressed to a young person [5, p. 105].

According to the Concept, the main areas of activity for the formation of an all-Russian civic identity among children and youth were: educational, cultural, educational, sports and recreation, tourism and local lore, socio-legal, information and communication. Among the criteria for evaluating effectiveness are the proportion (number) of children and youth who passively or actively participate in relevant events; the number of articles and reports in the media, including on the Internet. At the same time, it was unclear who exactly should conduct such calculations, analyze the quality of publications and reports; by what methods to identify the degree of their impact on the formation of the all-Russian civic identity. The Concept declared the need for "systematic monitoring of the effectiveness of this process at three levels: socio-psychological, socio-legal, moral and ethical," but did not specify what methods of correlating these levels, who and with what frequency will conduct this monitoring.

Along the way, we note that, for example, T. Vodolazhskaya sees it expedient to talk about elements, and not about levels. In the structure of civic identity, it designates three main elements: "cognitive knowledge of belonging to a given social community, value the presence of a positive or negative attitude to the fact of belonging and emotional acceptance or non-acceptance of the civic community as a membership group as a result of the action of the first two elements" [10, p. 141].

Analyzing the "Decree of the Government of the Rostov Region dated 04.04.2019 No. 234 "On the Action Plan for 2019-2021 for the implementation of the Strategy of the State National Policy of the Russian Federation in the Rostov region for the period up to 2025", one had to be surprised by the wording: "Assistance in holding celebrations dedicated to the National Unity Day" (indicator for monitoring the implementation at least 250 participants); "Assistance in holding celebrations dedicated to the Day of the National Flag of the Russian Federation" (at least 200). Such plans, in our opinion, do not contribute to strengthening civic identity, but turn this work into profanation, which ultimately discredits the government. The item "Ensuring the functioning of the system for monitoring the state of interethnic and interfaith relations and early warning of interethnic conflicts in the Rostov region" with the note: "funding is not required" raised questions. In this case, who will carry out monitoring or (as it is written in the document) "monitoring systems"? There is an unsubscription instead of a clear system of actions in one of the most important areas of work on the formation of all-Russian unity and mutual understanding. Some other points of the plan ("Holding public hearings, round tables, scientific and practical conferences on countering manifestations of xenophobia and strengthening interethnic harmony in the Rostov region") were also formulated loosely, and therefore it turned out to be quite difficult to verify their implementation.

We believe that the effectiveness assessment should be given by independent specialists, not engaged by the Rostov authorities, but by expert groups conducting systematic and consistent work on a reimbursable basis. The expected results of the implementation of the Concept are written in an unverifiable form (declaratively) and with a priori positive assessment.

Thus, in Rostov-on-Don, both the "Concept of the formation of an all-Russian civic identity among children and youth of the Rostov region" and the cognitive model of the formation of civic identity of youth (Yu. Volkov), in addition, several state tasks on this topic have been completed, a diagnosis of civil identity has been carried out, problems and the lack of formation of individual components of the civil identity of youth have been identified and named (G. Denisova). And yet, what government structures and non-profit organizations, educational institutions and the public as a whole are planning and doing is not enough to consider a civic identity formed. Moreover, we can talk about the integration of the selfdetermination of the regional community into the structure of citizenship of the all-Russian state.

For civic unity, there is no doubt that well-thought-out tools for the formation of interethnic harmony are needed. For this purpose, rallies, meetings, round tables, scientific conferences, festivals, celebrations of national cultures, excursions, contests, etc. are traditionally used. To a lesser extent, this topical topic is being developed and used in social advertising, documentaries and feature films, literature and visual arts. However, at the moment, government programs and regulatory documents do not focus on this group of instrumental opportunities for civic unity. Each type of such work requires considerable financial and human resources. To date, it is no less important to find mechanisms and tools to verify the effectiveness of the funds spent. Sociological research, of course, remains the most used forms of identifying the sentiments and opinions of the entire regional community and its individual groups. However, we see what sometimes contradictory and ambiguous answers sociologists receive, to what extent the answers depend on the wording of the questions in the questionnaires and their interpretation. Therefore, the search for mechanisms for obtaining feedback, the development of a system of criteria for assessing the level of formation of civic identity are currently relevant tasks for specialists developing theoretical approaches to the study of civic identity and strategies for interethnic and youth policy.

References
1. Volkov, Yu. G., Gurba, V. N., & Guskov, I. A. (2022). Sociocultural habitus of civil identity of students: formation factors in the conditions of uncertainty of Russian society. Humanitarian of the South of Russia, 6, 59-74.
2. Chikarova, G.I. (2022). Structural components of the civil identity of youth of the Rostov region: legal framework and social reality. Bulletin of the South Russian State Technical University. Series: Socio-economic sciences, 6, 213-221.
3. Fedotova, V. A. (2022). Trust in power among modern Russian youth: the role of values and ethnic identity. Politics and Society, 2, 14-27.
4. Bugaychuk, T.V., & Koryakovtseva, O.A. (2019). Formation of civil identity in the conditions of socio-political reality. SOCIS, 1, 5-15.
5. Rodionova, V.I., & Makushenko, S.A. (2017). Problems of civic identity and tolerance of youth of the Rostov region in the context of globalization. Bulletin of the Kalmyk Scientific Center of the Russian Academy, 104-109.
6. Denisova, G. S. (2019). Social identity and ideas of the youth of the Rostov region about the consolidating values of Russian society. Cultural space of youth: meanings and practices, Materials of the All-Russian Federation. scientific-practical conf. Moscow: PERSPECTIVE, 117-121.
7. Barkov, F.A., Serikov, A.V., & Chernous, V.V. (2013). Patriotic consciousness of the youth of the Rostov region. Humanitarian of the South of Russia, 58-76.
8. Drobizheva, L.M. (2019). Strategy of state national policy on Russian civil identity and its implementation in multi-ethnic regions of the Russian Federation. Unity. Citizenship. Patriotism. Collection of scientific works for the 100th anniversary of the Republic of Bashkortostan. Ufa: World of Press, 4-8.
9. Monastyrsky, D.V. (2017). Civil identity: theoretical approaches to research and factors shaping it. Humanitarian of the South of Russia, 1, 181-188.
10. Vodolazskaya, T. (2010). Civil identity. Educational Policy, 5-6(43-44), 140-141.
11. Resolution dated 10.19.2020 N 100 On approval of the state program of the Rostov region “Youth policy and social activity” Government of the Rostov Region. Retrieved from https://www.donland.ru/documents/12720/
12. The Concept of forming an all-Russian civil identity among children and youth of the Rostov region. Official portal of the Government of the Rostov region. Retrieved from ttps://www.donland.ru/activity/1161/

First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The article "Theory and practice of civil identity formation: the experience of Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region" submitted for review is devoted to an extremely relevant topic in modern conditions of development of Russian society. Civic identity is a complex, multifaceted concept. The authors also point out this: "... the very concept of "civil identity" does not have clear and generally recognized "boundaries", they are constantly being debated ..." and further along the text, "the need to study the phenomenon and the request for "identity politics" do not weaken ...". We support the authors in their desire to analyze existing approaches to the development of tools for assessing the levels and quality of formation of civic identity in society. Moreover, to do this using the example of a specific subject of the Russian Federation. The authors state in the research methodology content analysis of sociological research by scientists from Rostov-on-Don. At the same time, what we see in the article: in addition to the stated content analysis, an analysis of the work of Ministries and departments responsible for interethnic relations and civil solidarity, references to federal projects ("No statute of limitations"), programs ("Preventum", "Memory of Generations", etc.), state regional programs ("Youth policy and social activity", etc.). In the summary part of the article, we find a link from the authors that in-depth interviews were analyzed. What kind of interview is this, with whom, what are the questions, how many such interviews the authors are silent about this. In this regard, the article resembles "okroshka" - a little bit of everything, not worked out and raw. Considering the above, we suggest that the article be finalized: 1) focus in this article only on theoretical approaches and the regulatory framework for the formation of civic identity, specific tools - sociocultural practices referred to in the article by the authors, analyze in another article, 2) accordingly, change the title of the article. For example: "Theoretical and regulatory approaches to the formation of civil identity in the Russian Federation (on the example of Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region)", 3) to correct the methodological apparatus, prescribe general scientific methods - system analysis and synthesis, content analysis of theoretical approaches in the study of civil identity, content analysis of the regulatory framework for the implementation of models the formation of civic identity on the example of the Rostov region, 4) when describing content analysis, it is necessary to prescribe its conduct competently from a methodological point of view. Specify the general set of units of analysis, the volume of the sample, the semantic units of analysis and analyze them, 5) remove the recommendations from the article. They will be relevant in the article on specific mechanisms for the formation of civil identity, 6) We recommend supplementing the bibliographic list with normative legal acts referred to in the article by the authors.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the research in the presented article is the theoretical and regulatory approaches to the formation of civil identity in the Russian Federation. The descriptive method, the method of categorization, the method of analysis, as well as the content analysis of sociological research were used in this article as the methodology of the subject area of research. The relevance of the article is beyond doubt, since the problem of civic identity in Russia has been and remains acute and relevant. Probably, the discussion of this issue can be permanent, since, firstly, the very concept of "civil identity" does not have clear and generally recognized "boundaries", they are constantly being debated, the concept is fragmented into more and more clarifying elements and, secondly, it is proved that civil identity flexibly reflects on any political and socio-cultural changes in the country. Civil identity is often called "dormant", revealing itself in certain circumstances. Nevertheless, considerable financial investments are allocated annually for the formation and strengthening of civic identity in the country, and its condition requires constant monitoring. This article will consider the theoretical issues of building a civic identity relevant to Rostov-on-Don and the Rostov region; federal and regional programs, as well as regulatory documents regulating practical work in this direction. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the content analysis of sociological studies conducted by scientists from Rostov-on-Don who studied issues of civil identity, as well as in the analysis of the work of ministries and departments responsible for interethnic relations and civil solidarity. The article is written in the language of scientific style with the competent use in the text of the study of the presentation of various positions of scientists to the problem under study and the application of scientific terminology and definitions, and also contains references to official websites. The structure is designed taking into account the basic requirements for writing scientific articles, in the structure of this study such elements as introduction, main part, conclusion and bibliography can be distinguished. The content of the article reflects its structure. Especially valuable in the content of the study should be noted that the article provides a number of examples showing that, dissecting the phenomenon of civil identity, researchers break it up into smaller and smaller components and "juggle" data from opinion polls, which does not allow us to judge the degree of formation of civil identity in a holistic format either at the national or regional levels. Rostov-on-Don scientists have developed several models for the formation and strengthening of civic identity in the region. The scientific approach in these processes should be used taking into account serious ideological work on the formation of conditions for fraternal cooperation of peoples and instrumental support for their unity. The bibliography contains 12 sources, including domestic periodicals and non-periodicals, as well as electronic resources and official websites. The article describes various positions and points of view of well-known scientists characterizing approaches and various aspects to understanding the formation of civil identity in the Russian Federation, and also contains an appeal to various scientific works and sources devoted to this topic, which is included in the circle of scientific interests of researchers dealing with this issue in Russia. The presented study contains conclusions concerning the subject area of the study. In particular, for civic unity, there is no doubt that well-thought-out tools for the formation of interethnic harmony are needed. For this purpose, rallies, meetings, round tables, scientific conferences, festivals, celebrations of national cultures, excursions, contests, etc. are traditionally used. To a lesser extent, the relevant topic is being developed and used in social advertising, documentaries and feature films, literature and visual arts. Government programs and regulatory documents also do not focus on this group of instrumental opportunities for civic unity. Each type of such work requires considerable financial and human resources. To date, it is no less important to find mechanisms and tools to verify the effectiveness of the funds spent. Sociological research, of course, remains the most used forms of identifying the sentiments and opinions of the entire regional community and its individual groups. However, it is obvious what sometimes contradictory and ambiguous answers sociologists receive, how the answers depend on the wording of the questions in the questionnaires and their interpretation. Therefore, the search for mechanisms for receiving feedback, the development of criteria for assessing the level of formation of civic identity is an urgent task for those who develop theoretical approaches to the study of civic identity and strategies of interethnic and youth policy. The materials of this study are intended for a wide range of readers, they can be interesting and used by scientists for scientific purposes, teaching staff in the educational process, management and employees of ministries and departments responsible for interethnic relations and civil solidarity, public figures and public organizations, politicians, experts and analysts. As disadvantages of this study, it should be noted that the article did not clearly define and highlight its structural elements, such as relevance, research methodology, research results and conclusions, although they are undoubtedly traced in its content, however, they are not separately indicated by the appropriate headings. In the title of the article, it is more appropriate to use not the abbreviation "RF", but the full name of the state "Russian Federation". There are typos in words and technical errors in the text of the article. When making a bibliography, it is necessary to pay attention to the requirements of the current GOST, especially with regard to sources that are electronic resources. These shortcomings do not reduce the high scientific significance of the study itself, but rather relate to the design of the text of the article. It is recommended to publish the article.