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Forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking

Kutsev Vladimir Valentinovich

Member of Assembly, Assembly of the Rylsky District of the Kursk Region

307370, Russia, Kursk region, Rylsk, K. Liebknecht str., 21

Avto1772@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-7543.2024.1.69561

EDN:

QUZZSS

Received:

08-01-2024


Published:

15-01-2024


Abstract: The subject of this study is the forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. The purpose of the study is to analyze the forms and methods of preventing drug crimes, their differentiation, identify current problems and develop ways to solve them. Attention is drawn to the fact that the main actors in the prevention of drug crime are the state and society. The role of the state is to coordinate and determine the vectors of combating drug crime, draw up plans and programs for preventive activities, and determine the competence of other subjects of prevention. Society also plays an important role in reducing drug crime, so it is important to involve citizens in the prevention of crimes in the field of drug trafficking. It is determined that the feedback mechanism contributes to the qualitative interaction of civil society institutions with law enforcement agencies and government agencies. The research methodology includes a number of general scientific methods of scientific cognition. The following methods were used in the course of the research: the method of analysis and synthesis, methods of deduction and induction, the method of analyzing scientific literature, the method of systematization, formal legal, dialectical and other methods. The research is structured according to the principles of logic and structuring. The scientific novelty of this study is to highlight the urgent problems of drug crime prevention as one of the methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. Special attention is paid to improving the practice of social rehabilitation of drug addicts. This topic has been the subject of scientific research, but the main focus of many researchers is on drug treatment. At the same time, social rehabilitation and employment of drug addicts are of no less importance, as they seriously reduce the likelihood of such persons committing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. The considered method of preventing drug crimes, expressed in individual preventive work with drug addicts, will also contribute to reducing the demand for drugs, which will reduce the number of crimes in the field of illicit trafficking. The conducted research allowed us to conclude that such a method of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking as individual preventive work with drug addicts, their adaptation and social rehabilitation is of high importance. Some problems in this area are considered, and possible solutions are proposed.


Keywords:

drug crime, prevention of drug crimes, subjects of the warning, warning methods, crime, rehabilitation, prevention, security threat, drug addicts, law enforcement agencies

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Crime prevention is an important area of the fight against crime, as it pursues the goal of curbing the criminalization of society [1]. Within the framework of this study, the forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking will be considered.

Many famous scientists of the past and present have noted that prevention is much better than punishment. At the same time, a single generally accepted definition of crime prevention has not yet been formulated. If we summarize the points of view of most researchers, we can conclude that crime prevention in general in most cases refers to a system of measures implemented by authorized bodies to counteract the processes of crime determination [2].

In the science of criminology, crime prevention is considered as a multilevel system of measures implemented by the state and society aimed at recognizing (identifying), weakening, neutralizing or completely eliminating the causes and conditions of crime [3]. The task of crime prevention is to deter people from committing a crime.

There are other approaches to the definition of crime prevention in the scientific literature. Thus, in the study by S. I. Golik and B. P. Mikhailov, crime prevention is considered as a set of measures and measures to reduce crime, eliminate or neutralize the causes, conditions and factors that give rise to it [4]. There is also an opinion that crime prevention is a special mode of functioning of state authorities, which ensures the coordinated implementation of preventive, legal, organizational and other measures.

The theoretical analysis of scientific sources for the definition of the concept of "crime prevention" allows us to conclude that in most cases the authors consider this area of crime control as an activity carried out by the state and society. This highlights the importance of crime prevention to ensure national security and the safety of society.

If we talk about prevention in the context of drug crime, it should be noted that due to the measures implemented by state and public institutions, a decrease in the level of drug crime is achieved, the death rate and morbidity of the population from drugs are reduced, the situation in society is stabilized, and the authority of the state is increased. Therefore, increased attention is being paid to the prevention of drug crime at the present stage.

Turning to the consideration of the forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking, it should be noted that in criminology there is no uniform position on what should be understood by the forms of drug crime prevention. Some authors distinguish three forms prevention, suppression, and prevention [5]. According to other researchers, there are only two forms of crime prevention prevention and suppression [6]. There is also a position that the forms of crime prevention are determined based on the entity carrying out this activity. It is advisable to consider the forms of drug crime prevention, taking into account the last given position.

Thus, the subjects of drug crime prevention are the state and society.

The State, as a subject of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking, is represented by state and law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, the main crime prevention activities are carried out by government agencies and the law enforcement system. The role of State authorities in the prevention of drug crime is coordinating. This means that State bodies establish vectors for combating crime, adopt crime prevention programs and plans, carry out standard-setting activities, and determine the competence of other subjects of prevention. Such bodies include the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, the State Anti-Drug Committee, other federal authorities, as well as authorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local governments. The above allows us to conclude that the subject composition of state bodies involved in the prevention of drug crime is quite wide.

The direct implementation of the functions of countering drug trafficking is entrusted to the Prosecutor General's Office of the Russian Federation, the IC of Russia, the FSB of Russia, etc.

The bulk of the work on drug crime prevention is carried out by law enforcement agencies. Employees of these bodies carry out special and general preventive and preventive measures, identify the facts of crimes, identify, search and detain suspects, investigate and solve criminal cases [7].

Society, as one of the subjects of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking, also plays an important role in curbing criminalization of the population and reducing crime. The assistance of citizens and civil society institutions to State and law enforcement agencies in combating crime is of great importance and leads to serious results in reducing drug crime and reducing drug demand. The interaction of civil society institutions with government and law enforcement agencies is ensured through a feedback mechanism. The effectiveness of the participation of the subject in question in the prevention of crimes in the field of illegal drug distribution is evidenced by the analyzed investigative and judicial practice. Thus, thanks to the assistance of citizens, law enforcement agencies identify drug dens, criminal gangs, drug distribution sites, as well as drug addicts. The method of preventing drug crime, in the implementation of which the society is actively involved, is the action "Inform where death is traded". This campaign is being held nationwide and has shown quite good results. In 2022 alone, the hotline received more than 26 thousand requests from citizens.

Next, it is advisable to consider methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. Such methods, as the analysis of law enforcement practice shows, are:

organization of coordination meetings of law enforcement agencies on drug crime prevention;

coverage of the main results of drug crime prevention activities in the media;

conducting lectures and conversations with students of educational institutions on the anti-drug topic, explaining the danger of drug crimes and the severity of punishment for their commission;

improvement of legal culture, legal literacy and legal awareness of society, formation of a negative attitude towards drugs, their use and illegal distribution;

carrying out individual prevention of drug crimes;

prevention of drug crimes being prepared through the implementation of organizational, operational investigative, criminal procedural and other measures.

Among all the listed methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking, preventive measures are of particular importance. The prevention of drug trafficking in the scientific literature refers to the joint activities of the State and society aimed at identifying, eliminating or neutralizing the conditions and causes of such crimes. The concept of prevention also includes the elimination of specific conditions that contribute to the involvement of the population in drug trafficking; the definition of methods, methods and forms of social control over drug trafficking; the impact on the living conditions and upbringing of persons at risk; the implementation of criminal law, criminal procedure and other measures.

Separately, it should be noted that preventive measures are differentiated into general, group and individual ones. The measures of the first group are carried out with an indefinite number of people (advertising campaigns, preventive raids, inspection of places of probable accumulation of drug addicts, etc.). The choice of such measures is based on a preliminary analysis of the drug situation. The measures of the second group involve working with people from the risk group (minors from disadvantaged families, drug addicts, families in a socially dangerous situation). The third group of measures is implemented in relation to specific individuals (drug addicts, drug criminals). One of the most priority areas of individual preventive work is the adaptation and re-socialization of drug addicts [8]. Despite the high importance of this area of preventive activity, there are some unresolved problems in this area. It is advisable to highlight these problems and suggest possible solutions.

Thus, the concept of adaptation and re-socialization of drug addicts covers activities aimed at restoring the personal and social status of such people, helping them to resume social ties, assistance in treatment, social rehabilitation and employment. The result is that a person acquires the ability to function normally in society [9].

It is advisable to highlight the key problems in this area. Firstly, activities for the social rehabilitation of drug addicts are carried out in accordance with the provisions of the law on social services, and the procedure for the implementation of this activity is regulated at the level of normative legal acts of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The law is of a "framework" nature and needs to be "detailed" at the level of authorized agencies. Secondly, the forms of social rehabilitation of drug addicts have not been defined at the legislative level and issues of state control (supervision) over compliance with mandatory requirements in this area have not been regulated. Thirdly, there are problems with the employment of drug addicts after they undergo drug treatment and social rehabilitation, since employers are very reluctant to hire such people.

To solve these problems, it is necessary to develop appropriate amendments to legislation, since in the current situation, measures for the social rehabilitation of drug addicts are insufficient due to the lack of detailed legislative provisions at the level of authorized agencies. It is possible to solve the problem of employers' unwillingness to hire people who have undergone drug treatment and social rehabilitation by establishing benefits (by analogy with those benefits provided for the employment of disabled people) [10]. The elimination of problems in the field of adaptation and social rehabilitation of drug addicts and the development of special programs will contribute to improving the process of normative socialization of persons in this category, which will have a positive impact on the prevention of crimes in the field of drug trafficking.

Thus, this study examines the definitions of the concept of "crime prevention" proposed in the scientific literature. It is determined that there is no uniform definition of this concept. At the same time, most researchers consider this area of combating crime as the activity of the state and society for the coordinated implementation of preventive, legal, organizational and other measures in order to counteract the processes that determine crime. Attention is drawn to the special importance of preventing drug crime for ensuring national security and public safety.

The main forms of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking are considered. It is proposed to differentiate the forms depending on the subject carrying out prevention activities (state authorities, law enforcement agencies, civil society). The methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking are analyzed. It is concluded that preventive measures are of particular importance among all such methods. It is determined that adaptation and re-socialization of drug addicts are among the most priority areas of preventive work. Some current problems in this area have been identified and ways to solve them have been proposed.

References
1. Aganov, G.M., & Kovaleva, E. (2005). Prevention of crimes and other offenses as a result of prosecutorial supervision when applying sanctions in the form of imprisonment. Criminal Law, 4, 11.
2. Voronin, Yu. A., & Mayorov, A. V. (2013). Theoretical foundations of the formation of a system for combating crime in Russia. Criminological Journal of the Baikal State University of Economics and Law, 1, 7-16.
3. Gogoleva, A. Ya. (2014). The concept of prevention and combating crime. Young scientist, 6.1(65.1), 3-7.
4. Golik, S.I., & Mikhailov, B.P. (1980). Organization and tactics of protecting internal affairs. Moscow.
5. Gotchina, L.V. (2011). Youth drug addiction in modern Russia: criminological analysis and prevention: abstract. dis. ... doc. legal Sci. SPb.
6. Ivanov, V. A., & Khlebnikova, N. S. (2017). The role of society in the region with illegal drug trafficking. Mari legal bulletin, 1(20), 17.
7. Plankina, N. E. (2018). Social rehabilitation of persons suffering from drug addiction. Bulletin of the Amur State University. Series: Humanities, 82, 111-113.
8. Sidorenko, A.V., & Egorshin, V. M. (2012). Measures for considering unexpected drug trafficking. Bulletin of St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 2(54), 157.
9. Shalagin, A. E. (2004). Crimes against public health: abstract of thesis. ... Doctor of Law. Kazan.
10. Shchedrin, N. V. (1999). The foundations of general theories concern crime. Krasnoyarsk.

Peer Review

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The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

A REVIEW of an article on the topic "Forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking". The subject of the study. The article proposed for review is devoted to topical issues of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking. As noted in the article itself, "Within the framework of this study, forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking will be considered." The specific subject of the study was, first of all, the opinions of scientists, empirical data, and other materials of practice. Research methodology. The purpose of the study is not stated directly in the article. At the same time, it can be clearly understood from the title and content of the work. The goal can be designated as the consideration and resolution of certain problematic aspects of the issue of forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. Based on the set goals and objectives, the author has chosen the methodological basis of the study. In particular, the author uses a set of general scientific methods of cognition: analysis, synthesis, analogy, deduction, induction, and others. In particular, the methods of analysis and synthesis made it possible to summarize and share the conclusions of various scientific approaches to the proposed topic. Thus, the author summarizes the practice regarding the use of various forms and methods of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking. In particular, the following is stated: "it is advisable to consider methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking. Such methods, as the analysis of law enforcement practice shows, are: organizing coordination meetings of law enforcement agencies on the prevention of drug crime; highlighting the main results of drug crime prevention activities in the media; conducting lectures and conversations with students of educational institutions on the anti-drug topic, explaining the danger of drug crimes and the severity of punishment for their commission; improving legal culture, legal literacy and legal awareness of society, the formation of a negative attitude towards drugs, their use and illegal distribution; individual prevention of drug crimes; prevention of drug crimes being prepared through the implementation of organizational, operational investigative, criminal procedural and other measures." The following conclusion is also important: "The effectiveness of the participation of the subject in question in the prevention of crimes in the field of illegal drug distribution is evidenced by the analyzed investigative and judicial practice. Thus, thanks to the assistance of citizens, law enforcement agencies identify drug dens, criminal gangs, drug distribution sites, as well as drug addicts. The method of preventing drug crime, in the implementation of which the society is actively involved, is the action "Inform where death is traded". This campaign is being held nationwide and has shown quite good results. In 2022 alone, the hotline received more than 26 thousand requests from citizens." Thus, the methodology chosen by the author is fully adequate to the purpose of the study, allows you to study all aspects of the topic in its entirety. Relevance. The relevance of the stated issues is beyond doubt. There are both theoretical and practical aspects of the significance of the proposed topic. From the point of view of theory, the topic of forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking is complex and ambiguous. Indeed, in modern conditions, drug trafficking issues have a strong impact on society, negatively affecting the physical and moral health of citizens. The author is fully right that "If we talk about prevention in the context of drug crime, it should be noted that due to the measures implemented by state and public institutions, a decrease in the level of drug crime is achieved, the death rate and morbidity of the population from drugs are reduced, the situation in society is stabilized, and the authority of the state is increased. Therefore, increased attention is being paid to the prevention of drug crime at the present stage." Thus, scientific research in the proposed field should only be welcomed. Scientific novelty. The scientific novelty of the proposed article is beyond doubt. Firstly, it is expressed in the author's specific conclusions. Among them, for example, is the following conclusion: "this study examines the definitions of the concept of "crime prevention" proposed in the scientific literature. It is determined that there is no uniform definition of this concept. At the same time, most researchers consider this area of combating crime as the activity of the state and society for the coordinated implementation of preventive, legal, organizational and other measures in order to counteract the processes that determine crime. Attention is drawn to the special importance of preventing drug crime for ensuring national security and public safety. The main forms of crime prevention in the field of drug trafficking are considered. It is proposed to differentiate the forms depending on the subject carrying out prevention activities (state authorities, law enforcement agencies, civil society). The methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking are analyzed. It is concluded that preventive measures are of particular importance among all such methods. It is determined that adaptation and re-socialization of drug addicts are among the most priority areas of preventive work. Some current problems in this area have been identified and ways to solve them have been proposed." These and other theoretical conclusions can be used in further scientific research. Secondly, the author suggests scientific generalizations related to specific forms and methods of preventing drug crime, which may be useful for specialists in this field. Thus, the materials of the article may be of particular interest to the scientific community in terms of contributing to the development of science. Style, structure, content. The subject of the article corresponds to the specialization of the journal "Security Issues", as it is devoted to legal problems related to the criminological characteristics of crimes in the field of drug trafficking. The content of the article fully corresponds to the title, as the author considered the stated problems and achieved the research goal. The quality of the presentation of the study and its results should be recognized as fully positive. The subject, objectives, methodology and main results of the study follow directly from the text of the article. The design of the work generally meets the requirements for this kind of work. No significant violations of these requirements were found. Bibliography. The quality of the literature used should be highly appreciated. The author actively uses the literature presented by authors from Russia (Aganov G.M., Kovaleva E., Voronin Yu.A., Mayorov A.V., Golik S.I., Mikhailov B.P. and others). Many of the cited scientists are recognized scientists in the field of stated problems. Thus, the works of the above authors correspond to the research topic, have a sign of sufficiency, and contribute to the disclosure of various aspects of the topic. Appeal to opponents. The author conducted a serious analysis of the current state of the problem under study. All quotations of scientists are accompanied by author's comments. That is, the author shows different points of view on the problem and tries to argue for a more correct one in his opinion. Conclusions, the interest of the readership. The conclusions are fully logical, as they are obtained using a generally accepted methodology. The article may be of interest to the readership in terms of the systematic positions of the author in relation to the formation of forms and methods of preventing crimes in the field of drug trafficking On the basis of the above, summarizing all the positive and negative sides of the article "I recommend publishing"