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Philology: scientific researches

Interpretation of the concept through the prism of quantum theory

Latiypova Yuliya Alfritovna

ORCID: 0000-0002-5327-2726

Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages ​​of Humanitarian Faculties, Ufa University of Science and Technology

450076, Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Zaki Validi str., 32, room 338

Other publications by this author

Vorob'eva Ol'ga Vladimirovna

PhD in Philology

Senior Lecturer, Department of Foreign Languages ​​of Humanitarian Faculties, Ufa University of Science and Technology

450076, Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, Zaki Validi str., 32, office 338

Other publications by this author

Absalyamova Liliya Faritovna

ORCID: 0000-0003-1191-9920

Associate Professor, Department of Pedagogy and Psychology, Sibay Institute (branch) Ufa University of Science and Technology

453833, Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Sibai, Belova str., 21










Abstract: Changes in the field of quantum theory taking place in modern science have also affected linguistics. Quantum mechanics is one of the major achievements of past difficulties. The object of study of quantum theory is a minimal, weekly particle - a quantum. The functional liquidity of quanta and linguistic units has been revealed, which makes it possible to transfer research from quantum mechanics to the field of cognitive linguistics. The quantum-cognitive approach expands the view of the concept of nature, highlights its quantum properties and allows us to consider its dynamics as a quantum wave process. In the article, the subject of research is the concept, its dynamics as a change in the states of the concept and its interaction in various combinations. The work pays attention to such phenomena as quantum entanglement, quantum nonlocality, measurement, and contextuality. Modeling in the quantum-cognitive aspect involves considering changes in the state of a concept under the influence of context. The state of the concept through the prism of quantum mechanics is considered as a wave function that changes under the influence of context. To apply general methodological approaches to describing both phenomena, we will focus on such phenomena as quantum uncertainty and quantum entanglement. The article explores the concept through the prism of quantum theory. The material for the study was scientific publications and articles selected by a continuous sampling method on the topics Quantum Physics, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Physics, Cognitive Linguistics. The object of study of the article is the concept as a quantum immaterial cognitive formation that exists in the human mind. The study of the concept is based on a synthesis of the principles of two scientific directions: quantum mechanics and cognitive linguistics.


quantum, concept, quantum mechanics, cognitive linguistics, quantum uncertainty, quantum superposition, quantum entanglement, quantum nonlocality, measurement, actualization

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1. Introduction

Modern science is on the verge of a quantum revolution. Quantum theory first appeared inside physics at the beginning of the 20th century and is associated with such scientists as E. Schrodinger, M. Born, V. Heisenberg, Louis de Broglie, V. Pauli, P. Dirac, etc. Quantum physics appears at a time when classical physics cannot answer the questions that arise. Classical physics finds itself at a dead end when trying to explain microscopic phenomena: wave function, coherence, quantum entanglement, etc.

Quantum theory changes the classical view of the world and introduces numerous changes in the perception of the surrounding reality. Quantum mechanics opens up a new perspective on the world around us and reality. The theoretical positions of quantum physics are transferred to other scientific disciplines, "quantum chemistry", "quantum psychology", "quantum biology", "quantum cognitive science", etc. appear. The tendency of convergence of scientific disciplines is associated with the idea that the object of research does not exist by itself, but is connected with other fields of knowledge. Over time, the question arises about the possibility of applying quantum theory to the study of language [1].

In the last decade, linguistics has undergone drastic paradigm changes. Language ceases to be a direct object of research, it becomes an instrument of human cognitive abilities, becoming closer to neuroscience and psychology. As a result, interdisciplinary areas of cognitive linguistics and psycholinguistics arise. However, science does not stand still. The quantum paradigm is actively penetrating linguistics. In linguistics, one can find many works devoted to quantum theory: Tsvetkova A.A., Evstafieva M.A., Latypov R.A., Komissarova G. N., Mayorova O. A., etc.

3. Discussion

Quantum mechanics is a paradoxical scientific field that opens up a completely different reality that contradicts the laws of logic. This scientific discipline studies the behavior of microlevel particles, where the rules of classical physics cease to apply and are replaced by quantum laws. Quantum physics is developing a mathematical apparatus for studying the state and behavior of quantum microparticles, but cannot explain the reason for their behavior [2, 3].

Quantum theory is used to model cognitive phenomena: concept, consciousness, thinking, etc. As a result of the collaboration between the humanities and natural sciences, a new interdisciplinary field of research is emerging - quantum cognitive science. The object of quantum cognitive science research is a concept. In cognitive linguistics, many works have been devoted to the study of the concept, which is defined as a minimal, indivisible unit of consciousness ("quantum of knowledge" (E.S.Kubryakova), "discrete mental education" (Z.D. Popova, I.A. Sternin), "quantum of consciousness" (V.I.Karasik)), interacting with human knowledge and experience as well as with the outside world. The unit of quantum mechanics research is an elementary indivisible particle a quantum [3].

Quanta and concepts have functional similarities: 1) dual wave-particle nature; 2) dynamism in the space-time continuum; 3) registration through direct physical interaction with the observer. The concept as a cognitive (immaterial) structure is difficult to observe, and can be considered as a wave function. To apply common methodological approaches to the description of both phenomena, we will focus on such phenomena as "quantum entanglement and nonlocality", "measurement and contextuality" [4].

Quantum nonlocality and entanglement

According to classical physics, the energy interaction of an object is possible only with the local environment in one area of space. According to Einstein's theory of relativity: instantaneous interaction between particles that are in different physical systems is impossible, because there is no speed greater than the speed of light. In the course of a number of experiments, it was revealed that correlating particles can remain in antiphase even when the phase characteristics of one of them change. A pair of photons in an entangled state are able to react to each other. If the spin of one of them changes to positive, the helicity of the second one will instantly change to negative. The interdependence between quantum particles remains, even if they are separated by spatial interaction [2, 5]. Quantum microparticles are in a state of nonlocality.

During the measurement of one of the particles, an instantaneous reaction of the second, associated particle occurs. In this situation, the second particle receives not a physical (energy), but an information signal about a state change from its quantum entangled partner, and immediately reacts with its physical state change regardless of distance. The interaction between different physical systems takes place not at the energy level, but at the information-phenomenal level of being. At the moment when a quantum object is in a state of "rest" (before measurement), it is not localized in space and has no energy. On the one hand, the object is everywhere, on the other hand, nowhere. A quantum object does not possess any of the properties (it is in a state of uncertainty), and at the same time concentrates all possible states simultaneously [6, 7].

Quantum entanglement or communication occurs between correlating particles that are united by a single quantum state. If quantum particles have ever interacted with each other, they have retained information about each other and are able to "feel" changes. Some particles are "born" in a pair (for example, when a photon decays into two parts), while others collide with each other and establish interaction, while others simply pass close by, reflecting into each other (capture an image of the internal structure of another object in sufficient detail), form a quantum entanglement.

Before interacting with the outside world, a quantum particle demonstrates isolation in itself (integrity and inseparability) and exhibits a paradoxical superposition of possible states, i.e., being everywhere and in all possible states at the same time. Such a pure (coherent) state of a quantum particle is described through a wave function (vector state) or the superposition of wave functions (wave interference). The wave function can be compared to diverging circles on the surface of water, if a stone is thrown there, the wave propagates simultaneously everywhere, and waves that intersect each other figuratively illustrate quantum entanglement [8, 9].

Conceptual meanings overlap and overlap due to the commonality of semantics. For example, the main meaning of the lexeme "snake" is "animal, reptile". All the conceptual meanings of the lexeme in question correlate with each other, reflecting different facets of the same concept: "characteristic" (venomous snake), "body part" (snake sting), "attitude of other subjects towards it" (fear of snakes), etc. All these logically related conceptual meanings simultaneously coexist and converge in one indefinite (blurred) meaning: "a reptile with a long body covered with scales and writhing when moving, without legs, often with poisonous teeth"

In the context, the concept of "snake" is updated each time in a different "environment", realizing only one of its features: 1) "What kind of snakes are found here?" (the snake's habitat); 2) "A bird of prey hunted a snake" (a snake is a victim); 3) "According to the tradition, a snake brings good news to all the inhabitants of the house" (a snake is a blessing); 4) "When meeting a person, a snake, as a rule, tries to hide, but when threatened it takes an active defense: hisses, makes threatening throws" (defensive reaction of a snake), etc.

All these quantum states of the concept are inseparable from each other (just as it is impossible to remove the properties of the object itself (the snake) from the real world). Thus, the concept exists as a set of "ready-made" cognitive models, schemes, scenarios, which in various combinations and combinations are objectified in texts and discourses. The concept already contains all possible potential meanings: "snake wriggles", "snake crawls out", "snake stings", "snake attacks", etc., which makes the ways of its development in discourse predictable. In the structure of the concept of "snake", well-known figurative expressions are also found, such as: "behave like a snake" (be insidious), "warm the snake on your chest" (show ingratitude), etc.

The concept, thus, before being realized in the context, is in an indefinite quantum state, existing in consciousness in the form of a quantum "embryo", "germ", "prototype", "first thought" and, falling into certain conditions, is able to "germinate both in word and deed". In the context, the concept is "included" in a certain event and certain relationships with subjects and objects, unfolds in a certain place and time [10].

Measurement and contextuality

At the moment when a quantum system interacts with another quantum system (decohers), both systems are transformed into a mixed state (by adding two quantum superpositions). The reduction of the wave function in the interaction of two coherent closed systems leads to their transition from an indefinite (quantum) aspect of existence to a definite (classical) one. With the advent of an observer who registers the readings of a measuring device, the system changes the quantum mode of being to the classical one. The consciousness of the subject eliminates (destroys) the superposition (sum) of probabilistic states and allocates a specific value. The mixed state (composition of pure states) is no longer described by a state vector, but by a density matrix. [11]

The concept changes its state (it is modified from a potential state to a real one) under the influence of the environment. The actualization of a concept is understood as its "implementation; transition from a state of possibility to a state of reality." Linguistic design is the verbalization of a concept in various texts and discourses. When in contact with the context, the concept is transformed from a quantum (pure) state into an actualized state. When several mental entities interact in the context, we get a mixed concept, i.e. a new, created one. The resulting concept is a combination of two mental entities.

Let's consider the merging of concepts using this example: "fire snakes danced in the mirrors." In this context, the concept of "snake" described above is actualized, which demonstrates non-local properties in this case. In the context, concepts belonging to different non-contiguous conceptual spaces are mixed: a mirror ("an object with a smooth surface designed to reflect objects in front of it") and a snake ("a reptile with a long writhing body, without legs"). As a result of the entanglement of heterogeneous concepts, we get a new meaning of "reflection in the mirror". "Contextual interaction can lead to the fact that those entities that act as contexts for each other have such a strong mutual influence that the result of their interaction is, accordingly, the emergence of a new emergent entity that has properties different from those of interacting entities" [12, 13].

Thus, a concept under the influence of context can establish quantum entanglement with any lexical and semantic quantum. This is due to the brain's ability to establish an infinite number of associative connections between unrelated concepts. This is evidenced by such phenomena as metaphor, metonymy, conversion and other phenomena with indirect semantics [14].

3. Conclusion

Quantum theory can be applied not only in physics, but also in other fields of scientific knowledge, such as psychology and cognitive science. Human consciousness exhibits quantum-like properties and is inaccessible to direct observation. Mental entities can be studied by superimposing on them not only philosophical, but also mathematical models borrowed from quantum mechanics.

Based on the research conducted in the article, we can note that the concept has the following quantum characteristics: 1) the state of superposition (uncertainty, potentiality, non-separability); 2) the state of actualization (embodiment in a text or discourse); 3) dependence on context.

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The article "Interpretation of the concept through the prism of quantum theory" presented for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Litera", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the author's appeal to the study of those shifts in the scientific world to which we are contemporaries. So, in the last decade, linguistics has undergone drastic paradigm changes. Language ceases to be a direct object of research, it becomes an instrument of human cognitive abilities, becoming closer to neuroscience and psychology. Currently, there are more and more interdisciplinary studies, which is indirectly reflected in the changed nomenclature of scientific specialties. In the study, the author turns to a new direction in linguistics, resulting from the synthesis of the humanities and natural sciences - quantum cognitive science. Taking into account the interest in studying the theory of the concept as a whole, the work is relevant and is designed to fill in the gaps that exist. The article is innovative, one of the first in Russian linguistics devoted to the study of such issues. The article presents a research methodology, the choice of which is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the work. The author turns to various methods to confirm the hypothesis put forward, both general scientific and linguistic ones. Unfortunately, the work does not specify the language corpus of the study, as well as the principles of sampling illustrative material. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and a final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. It should be noted that the conclusion requires strengthening, it does not fully reflect the tasks set by the author and does not contain prospects for further research in line with the stated issues. The bibliography of the article contains 14 sources, among which works are presented exclusively in Russian. We believe that the appeal, including to foreign sources, would undoubtedly enrich the work. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to the fundamental works of Russian researchers, such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. Technically, when making a bibliographic list, the generally accepted requirements of GOST are violated, namely, non-compliance with the alphabetical principle of registration of sources. The comments made are not significant and do not detract from the overall positive impression of the reviewed work. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses on conceptology and theory of language, as well as courses on interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "Interpretation of the concept through the prism of quantum theory" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal.