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Philology: scientific researches
Reference:

The system of comparisons in the works of Even poets

Vinokurova Antonina Afanas'evna

PhD in Philology

Associate professor, Department of Northern Philology, Institute of Languages and Culture of the Peoples of North-East of the Russian Federation, Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University

677000, Russia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Kulakovsky str., 42, office 225

antonina-vinokurova@bk.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Egorova Sargylana Ivanovna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Yakut Literature, North-Eastern Federal University named after. M.K. Ammosova

67700, Russia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Kulakosky str., 42, office 229

sargi@mail.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0749.2023.12.69433

EDN:

GBUJOD

Received:

20-12-2023


Published:

27-12-2023


Abstract: The article is devoted to the issue of the system of comparisons used in the language of Even poetry. The paper provides a list of means of expressing comparisons, distinguished from the positions of "subject", "predicate" and "argument". In order to develop a universal comprehensive model for studying the technique of poetic comparison as a component of the poet's style, we conducted observations on the language of poetic works by Even poets Nikolai Tarabukin, Platon Lamutsky, Andrei Krivoshapkin, Evdokia Bokova and Varvara Arkuk. The obtained material allows, first of all, to clarify the list of means of expressing poetic comparison. Analyzing the material on this topic, we came to the conclusion that comparisons help the poet convey the feeling and mood of the lyrical hero, create a poetic text mainly, such an approach performs such an important function as aesthetic. When classifying examples, we rely on the original Even language and the main research methods are semantic-stylistic, contextual, classification, and also use field methodology. The methodology uses the works of A.N. Veselovsky, A. A. Potebni, B. V. Tomashevsky. The novelty of this article is determined by the fact that Even poetry is one of the young literatures of the national literature of the Russian Federation. The means of enhancing the visual expressiveness of speech, the comparison used by the Even poets, reveal the art of the original culture of the Evens and the wonderful flair of the native Even language. Comparison is a universal cognitive structure where a person learns about the world around them. In Even poetry, the authors, revealing the picture of the world of the North and the Arctic, using a comparison, showed a special artistic perception. The North and the Arctic remain the space that was mastered by the northern peoples and they created a circumpolar culture where the world of people and nature are harmonious. In the poetry of the Even poets, we have identified some noteworthy comparisons that create their own special artistic poetic language.


Keywords:

even, comparsion, parhs, lyrics, argyment, subject, Even literature, natural phenomena, North, Arctic

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The terminology used to describe comparative constructions is diverse. The concept of "the subject of comparison" is used by researchers to name what they compare (A. P. Veselovsky, P. S. Ivanova, M. N. Krylova, O. P. Razumova), "the subject of comparison" (A. A. Potebnya, B. V. Tomashevsky, A. I. Fedorov). What is compared with is called the "object of comparison" (M. Johnson, P. S. Ivanova, J. Lakoff, V. V. Obraztsova), the "image of comparison" (B. V. Tomashevsky), the "prototype of comparison" (D. H. K. Majdi). Continuing the scientific legacy of A. A. Potebni, the concept of "basis for comparison" is used in their scientific treatises by G. A. Zolotov, N. S. Pershina. As for foreign scientists, the term "comparison parameter" is applied to the object of comparison (O. Buchholz, P. Kuzzolin, C. Lehmann, M. Haspelmat). Such a variety of approaches indicates that the steady interest of philologists in the study of comparison as an imaginative artistic means is one of the characteristic, recognizable techniques of the writer, a kind of representative of his individual style.

If we turn to the dictionary of literary terms, we will see that comparison (Latin compratio) is a trope, a verbally expressed compilation of two phenomena based on the relative similarity between them. The obligatory morphological components of comparisons are:

1) the "subject", i.e. the object of the author's imaginative reflection,

2) the "predicate" (the object to which the "object" is related) and

3) an "argument" motivating the "similarity of the dissimilar" between them [3].

Or the figurative nature of comparisons involves the comparison of two or more objects, phenomena, actions, qualities that have identical characteristics. At the same time, unlike metaphors, the compared objects retain their independence [5].

This article examines the comparison in Even poetry. Even literature belongs to the newly written literatures, which in accelerated development go through the main stages and styles of world literature, "the epoch of artistic consciousness from folklore-poetic to the artistic proper, therefore it has a multi-stage character." [Vinokurova. Hood. Heritage.]

As V.E. Khalizev notes, considering the specifics of artistic speech, "... artistic speech requires the perceiver to pay close attention not only to the subject of the message, but also to its own forms, to its integral fabric, to its shades and nuances" [6].

In the works of the Even poets, such a type of tropes as comparison is very widely represented. Considering comparisons as pictorial means of the artistic Even word, first of all, we relied on the original of the Even language, paid attention not only as an object of the author's imaginative reflection, but also to the shades and nuances of the motivating "similarity of the dissimilar" between them. Thus, the lyrics of Nikolai Tarabukin, Platon Lamutsky, Vasily Lebedev, Andrei Krivoshapkin, the female lyrics of Evdokia Bokova and Varvara Arkuk are analyzed.

The whole life of the writer was reflected in the work of N. Tarabukin, his worldview and worldview were revealed through the prism of the worldview of the Even culture. The history and reality, passed through his thoughts, sensitively and subtly understanding the world of Even, are classics of Even literature. To identify the features of visual means in the poetic work of N.S. Tarabukin, the texts of the collection "Higi ikalni" (1936) and poems published in the collection "Nolten Hadien" (2009) served as a source of linguistic material [1].

The first poems of Platon Lamutsky were approved by N. Tarabukin. P. Lamutsky, as a teacher who taught the Even language in national schools for a long time, paid special attention to the development of children's artistic perception. P.A. Lamutsky is considered one of the most talented artists of the Even word. He is the author of a number of poetry collections "Even kunan ikegen" (Children's Even songs), 1960, "Honchan" (Fawn), 1964, "Gyal osikatal" (Friends asterisks), 1976, "Even iken" (Song of Even), 1980, the compiler of the collection of poems by Even poets "Nelkarep torments", 1960.P. Lamutsky's early works are dedicated to children. Therefore, with the advent of his poetic work, it was believed that a children's theme appeared in Even literature. For the first time in Even literature, a verse appears in the genre of a lullaby, for example, "Bayu bi babaddam" (Lullaby), an appeal to the theme of cosmonautics (poems by P. Lamutsky "Kosmostuk nonap toren" (The first words from space), "Bay kosmosla" (A man in space)). Other features of his lyrics are noted the presence of onomatopoeic words that convey the voices of nature [2].

In Andrey Krivoshapkin's poetry, the North is the main theme of the writer, about which he can talk endlessly. The introduction to a big conversation about the life of the Even of Yakutia is the famous poem by A. Krivoshapkin "My People". With deep pain, the poet creates pictures of the terrible past of his people, who survived the cold, hunger, disease, but: Did not go astray, Did not die, did not disappear ... The author is amazed at the courage, steadfastness of his people: How did you live, my people? How did you survive here, In the white darkness, in the blue hell? In spite of all deaths, In spite of All enemies How could he stand in centuries [6, p. 33]? The poet finds answers to these questions in the wise, good traditions and customs of the Evens, according to which the ancestors lived. According to the poet, people survived in harsh conditions because "goodness bloomed in the soul." The poet is grateful to the ancestors who preserved their native language, he is immensely proud of its beauty, melodiousness, tenderness. Andrey Krivoshapkin speaks about his native language with great trepidation, and we believe in the beauty of his native language: "The nomadic Lamuts have an inexhaustible world of melodious Even speech. Both infants and toddlers, and young people, and elders felt like people thanks to their native language - this eternal holy spiritual wealth. They lived in a closed world and were happy. And the main thing that united them was their native, allpowerful Lamut language." How can you give up such wealth?! But the new age is merciless and inexorable. "Our native Even language is rapidly losing its position, there are fewer and fewer native speakers. Without a language, there is no people. How can we solve this most burning, fateful problem?" [4].

Among the Even writers living in Yakutia, the work of Evdokia Nikolaevna Bokova is well known. The peculiarity of her lyrics was vividly revealed by her first collection "Enin Iken" (Mother's Song) (1990). Her poems are characterized by melodiousness, melodiousness, characteristic of the creative nature of Evdokia Bokova. One of the active representatives of her people is Belolyubskaya Varvara Grigoryevna Varvara Arkuk is a teacher, poet, public figure. She is known in modern Even literature as a children's poet. V. Arkuk's first collection "Noche nochenu" (My Sunny Flower) was published in 1991. The works addressed to children are bright and cheerful. The leitmotif of her poetic work is the motif of the sun [1].

In this paper, we will focus on the following forms of comparison:

1. Complete, consisting of three elements:

a) the subject of comparison, i.e. an object that is compared with something, for example:

in the works of N. Tarabukin - Bi, umta, urachin,/ Hak bisiv-e I was like an egg closed,

in the works of V. Lebedev - yenxi toren, munrukas hulradu deschidden my northern land, wrapped in a rabbit blanket, baldannavu toremu birakchanchin eenni the sound of the native language, like the murmur of a brook, husigchin daggoches togechir ogile clouds, like swans, fly high, nyamalral kukatanchin honchan togattan the fawn is lying with a mitt, basking in the sun.

in the works of P. Lamutsky - hupkuchek tagele /Flagchandi gattimdas my school is in the distance, / like a flag is visible

in the works of A. Krivoshapkin - Anadya enkenchin / Hinu enniram like an orphaned fawn, / I'm calling you

in the work of V. Arkuk

?,,,, ?

Giltalri datlatan nanninni

Nodamri maitanchin edemren

Seagulls, seagulls are flying,

Their wings gleaming white in the blue sky

It's like a beautiful handkerchief in the wind

b) an object of comparison, i.e. an object used for comparison, for example:

in the work of N. Tarabukin, the poet, when describing the first flight, compares the glider with a thunderstorm

Togechin-e dyapkalin

Agdykanchin kurerganchin daggotten

Through the cloud

It flies like a thunderstorm (about the glider)

in the works of P. Lamutsky

Nebati tent don

Nelten eriman umairan.

Hupkuchivche bay tachin

Baekachchon hami sherrilren.

In a white tent

The sunlight has penetrated

Also someone who is learning

Brightens with knowledge

in the works of V. Lebedev, the nulgaddy beigachin khumbupki deschin-e urakcher heeten endless ridges caravan stretched out on a difficult road.

c) grounds for comparison (a common feature of the items being compared). In the works of the Even poets, this category of comparisons is created using the allied words urechin (as if), uremeken, nekrigchin, targachin. (also);

in the works of N.Tarabukin

Yasalkaman chukachan yasallon

Nekrigchin nodymram.

Haramtan

Hulan meneng urachin,

Mergecanny

Bawi ineni uratkenny.

Her eyes are like the eyes of a bird

Beautiful

Her eyelashes -

Like gold

Her thoughts

Bright as a clear day.

in the work of P.Lamutsky in the poem "Ilyich Znamyan kherdalin"

Nelkarin,

Neche hanying,

Targichin da khanidyandap

Okat hainalan,

Urekchen balgalen

Meng bugangar

Baldadannar.

Spring is bright

The flower is beautiful

And that's how we admire

Near the river

By the mountain

My native land

In the works of V. Lebedev, for example: bulatu davsari nekrigchin - as if waving a handkerchief, bolarap ebdenre urachchin - like an autumn leaf, gersi neche urachen - like a blooming flower, targachin gusakram (also), Inen tor beindin hi mani gerbutmi kalrit kadar urachen man bili if you call yourself a northerner, then be like a cool the rock is persistent; Upevu ikatlan dolbarap higila, kadar-ul dyapkalan ultavki urachchin, tegenuk tegenuk delniken emeschir - my grandmother's songs echo far, far away among the rocks; Indigir namtaki eenni / Targachin gusakram hinteki indigir sails to the sea, also I will come to you.

2. Merged forms of comparisons in which there are no comparative allied words. In Lebedev's works, they are expressed by suffixes -kach, chin, -gchin. For example:

in the work of N.Tarabukin - Chachaskan chin nebanakan / Girkallotta. Chelen tor-e, - like a white fox / the whole northern land is marching, asatkar nuriten / haitalda gchin edemre the girls' hair is like dry grass in the wind

Sister emmotte hyalikilda gchin

Nebatich oich tattidur

Nebalcanni iwatte.

Nurses are like partridges

Dressed in white clothes

The whites enter

in the works of P. Lamutsky,

Hinmach isuli, hutchamu,

Hinu stadola khorumchu

Tala orna chin isudas

Grow up faster my son

I want to take you to the herd,

So that you can grow up like a fawn

in the works of V. Lebedev - ayavriy toremenfarin harpoon kach, badirach hilesach bi dukchim I will write about my native language as bright as the sun's rays; baldannavu toremu birakchan chin eenni my native language as the murmur of a stream; t arav udyu,/ biniv udyan,/ n okikenchin/ nunenchin, / m avutkan chin / Humbunchin this road is the road of life, straight as an arrow, stretches in a line like a noose; Oran-damar okattak / Ethergen chin kunyaddan the deer ran into the river like an ant; Min myavmu hunelen / Nelkarep mode gchin onkalben the blood of my heart / pours like a spring flood.

in the works of A. Krivoshapkin

Eeni iges uldadyandan,

Nun okatla istala

Encachen chin hurkanadli

Your current is ringing

Along the big rivers

Like a fawn

Bi dagsam chukichan chin

Baldanna boogie oidelin

I fly like a bird

Above his native land

Chulbanchiril hyakital

Asatkan chin khanichal

Greening trees

How girls stand

in the lyrics Arkuk, the main theme of the poem "Esem beychir munrukam " was the love of nature, for caring for it, and reasonable love. The author seems to be talking about hunting hares. The poet compares a bunny with a child: kunakan chin honalran - like a baby crying. Or,

Nevte, oir chainur

With a couple of pancakes

Urekchenchin ho hinam

Odymdas bivattam

When I drink tea with Oir herb from the spring

With their relatives

Like a mountain force

It's getting bigger in me

3. Correlative forms of comparisons. In paintings depicting nature, the poet often uses comparisons: a) homogeneous comparisons of natural phenomena with other natural phenomena; b) various projections of the states of the natural world into the human one, and vice versa. For example:

in the works of N. Tarabukin

Hatarsiduk dolbaniduk,

Nebati chivkachan odydi,

Nerem-e

From the dark night

Like a white bird

I'm flying out

in the works of V. Lebedev - Urekchenduk birakchan, honchanchin huskannikan, hassekicheken hukalcatte a stream from a large mountain with a deer jump, jump and skip; togsel, hu, husigchin daggeches tegen ogili clouds, you, like swans, fly in the open; uyun byagu chuptere inensi Torenu Munrucas Hulradu Deschidden for nine months my northern edge is covered with a hare's robe; tar kadar himnendun chachaskan bukchenchin snow on a rock, like a arctic fox; noltenduk valelmi chachasami hulrai tor upe dyuttan grandmother earth, being careful of the sun, covered with a arctic fox blanket. The traditional way of life of the Even nomads is associated with comparisons of saddened old men with a deer that graze in the evening:

Etiker tagatte amkachan haedong, Like old gray-haired uyamkans

Nabuchin oranchin elgalin badatta They stand on the rocks, looking at the sunset

Hiserep onkaddy ornachin So, old men, smoking pipes,

Hinyan-nyun odydyur tagetteh They sit near houses in the evening.

For the poet, the devotion of the people is also a white deer. The poet compares the oral folk art of his people with the white deer, which is sacred to the Evens.

Otel doldatlay ukcheneku

Tiekerlen mudan dioongchiram:

Kuunmin toorenny dukamnadu

havek oran uremeken!

The legend that I heard in the old days,

I won't forget on the last day either:

After all, for a poet, the devotion of the people-

Also a white deer!

Comparison of natural phenomena with the human world: Bolar hatar hisachin, yalranya tetii tattidi, hyakital hagtaten ilchachagchin ilchaptan - on an autumn evening, dressed in a black robe, the leaves of trees seemed intertwined with each other.

In the poetry of Evdokia Bokova, the works are replete with comparisons. The author gently compares the snow cover with a snowwhite, soft, warm blanket, and nature falls asleep, anticipating the future spring awakening in a dream: ho nodach is very beautiful, tembutich is soft, nemisich is warm, giltan is snow-white, hulrach. Snow music is heard in the poems "Bugu hanisnan", "Tuger badikar", "Numche bisep inendu" ("Used to the frost").

Let's turn to the poem "Tugar badikar":

Urekcheng chidadukun

Tugarep nltenandet

Hutanyya elrykmi

Mayors of the city.

The author depicts the picture of a winter morning with the help of comparisons: hutanyya elrykmi maryye enenny - the sun came out with red, round cheeks [Female lyrics].

Comparisons are one of the significant tropes of the poetic creativity of the Even poets. His poetry is characterized by complete, fused and correlative forms. One of the most widely used visual means is nature and its phenomena as an object of comparison with man and the world around him. Poets in their works string together special "authorial" comparisons that make up one of the features of an individual style.

So, with the help of such visual means of language, poets not only create comparisons of various types, but also convey certain nuances of the meaning of a word within any type.

References
1. Vinokurova, A.. (2019). History of the development of Even literature. Languages of indigenous peoples as a factof in the sustainable development of the Arctic. Yakutsk, 152-156.
2. Vinokurova, A. . (2022). The artistic heritage of Platon Lamutsky. Languages and literature of peoples of the North-East: current state and development prospects, 6-11. Yakutsk.
3. Ivanyuk, B.P. (2008). Poetic speech : dictionary of terms. 2nd edition. Moscow: Flinta: Nauka.
4. Okorokova, V. B., & Semenova, V.G. (2021). National originality of the themes of A. Krivoshapkins work. Phillological Sciences. Questions of theory and pracrice. Volume 14. 322-327.
5. Romanova, G.I. (2005). The practic of analyzing a literary work (Russian classics). Moscow: Flint: Science.
6. Khalizev, V.E. (2009). Theory of literature. Moscow: Publishing center "Academy.

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The article "The system of comparisons in the works of the Even poets" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Philology: Scientific research", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the importance of studying the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation, the work of national writers with the people of our country. Taking into account the remoteness of this region from the federal center, as well as the ethnocultural landscape of this region, including the ethno- and linguistic cultures of Dolgan, Evenks, Evens, Nganasans, Ents, Nenets, characterized by the influence of long-term ethnocultural contacts on the development of languages and culture of the indigenous population, this topic is relevant for philology. In addition, the author turns to the study of one of the fertile areas of stylistics, namely comparison as an imaginative artistic means, which often characterizes the author's style. This article examines the comparison in Even poetry based on the literary texts of Nikolai Tarabukin, Platon Lamutsky, Vasily Lebedev, Andrei Krivoshapkin, the female lyrics of Evdokia Bokova and Varvara Arkuk. The author applied an interdisciplinary approach, using both methods of linguistics proper and general scientific methods of analysis. It should be noted that there is a relatively small number of studies on this topic in Russian linguistics. The article is innovative, one of the first in Russian linguistics devoted to the study of such topics. The author illustrates the theoretical material with language examples. Structurally, we note that this work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. The study was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing a statement of the problem, mention of the main researchers of this topic, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, research and final, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. The disadvantages include the lack of clearly defined tasks in the introductory part, the ambiguity of the methodology and the course of the study. The bibliography of the article contains 6 sources, among which works are presented exclusively in Russian. The lack of foreign publications artificially limits the submitted work. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to fundamental works such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the process of teaching university courses on literary theory and a workshop on the languages of the peoples of Russia. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "The system of comparisons in the works of the Even poets" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal.