Eng Cn Translate this page:
Please select your language to translate the article


You can just close the window to don't translate
Library
Your profile

Back to contents

Philology: scientific researches
Reference:

Semantic transformations of phraseological units in poetic texts of the collection of poems of the XX century "Impulse. New names."

Slashcheva Natalya Ivanovna

ORCID: 0000-0001-9865-590X

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Russian Language and Socio-Cultural Adaptation, Volgograd State Medical University

400066, Russia, Volgograd region, Volgograd, mercy of the Fallen Fighters, 1

natalyashkabara@yandex.ru
Chigrinova Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Russian Language and Socio-Cultural Adaptation, Volgograd State Medical University

400093, Russia, Volgograd region, Volgograd, Ploshchad of Fallen Fighters, 1

kat.belka1990@ya.ru
Efremova Natalia Vladimirovna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Russian Language and Socio-Cultural Adaptation, Volgograd State Medical University

400093, Russia, Volgograd region, Volgograd, Ploshchad of Fallen Fighters, 1

natalyashkabara@yandex.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0749.2023.12.69384

EDN:

QIGHKA

Received:

20-12-2023


Published:

31-12-2023


Abstract: The article presents a study aimed at identifying the communicative and pragmatic properties of phraseological units functioning in the poetic texts of the collection "Impulse. New names." Since the use of phraseological units as in their original (dictionary) helps to create a special expressiveness and emotionality of each poem Similarly, in modified forms, the authors identify several types of phraseological units with structural and semantic changes. The theoretical basis of communicative and pragmatic phraseology studied by us served as an impetus for the search for new data in modern poetry. The specificity of the phraseology context relationship lies in the fact that the phraseological unit represents both a special independent context and is part of the general context. The transformation of phraseological units is a process that includes various ways to update the usual stable expressions for the most adequate characterization of the described situation. A detailed study, selection and analysis of various types of stable phraseological expressions used and modified by the authors of the collection has been carried out. A special contribution of the authors to the study of the topic is the creation of a classification of phraseological units based on the studied material: with a reduction in the components of phraseology, with a change in the places of the components of phraseology, with an expansion of the lexical composition of phraseology, with a paradigmatic change in the core component of phraseology, with the replacement of one component of phraseology with another. In the course of the study, it was argued that semantic and structural changes within phraseological units are most often interrelated and imply each other. These changes and their varieties can be intertwined within the framework of a single poem or passage. In a poem, there may be phraseological units with the replacement of components, a phraseological unit with the reduction or expansion of components. Therefore, within the framework of one poem, it is possible to interact various phraseological units with a modified structure and semantics.


Keywords:

poetic text, building up meanings, transformation of phraseological units, phraseological expressions, collection of poems, classification, connotation, meaning, individuality, contamination

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Poets in the 20th century are expanding the boundaries of possibilities for creating poems that will be filled not only with deep thoughts, but also which will include special means of creating imagery and communication with the reader. One of the main such means is phraseology [1].

Poetic texts have always been distinguished by special forms and means for its creation. The means of expression, the special rhythm, the words and expressions of the author all this creates a certain atmosphere and world in which the reader finds himself. The use of phraseological units in their original (dictionary) and modified forms also helps to create a special expressiveness and emotionality of each poem.

As the main material for the analysis of the contamination of phraseological units, we selected a collection of poems of the twentieth century "Impulse. New Names" (1989). This collection contains poems by both beginners (K. Dzhangirov, M. Dubaev, D. Novikov, S. Shcherbakov, etc.), as well as true masters of the word (Yu. Arabov, I. Zhdanov, O.Nikolaeva, M. Shelekhov, etc.) of the 80s.

The collection "Rush" is an attempt at an open talent contest, it is a poetic tournament of various directions and views. The compiler, the editor of the book, and the publishing house sought to show the trends in the development of today's poetry, the polar methods of poetic thinking, and the collision of different ideas and imaginative systems. A new wave of Russian poetry, which connoisseurs of poetry have been waiting for so long and which critics have talked about so much and at random, has nevertheless emerged. Unpredictable, unexpected, gifted, impetuous or slow, searching, mistaken, finding archaists and innovators of our days..." [2, p. 5].

In our early works, we paid special attention to one of the main trends of poets the use of all possible forms and types of phraseological units. The theoretical basis of communicative and pragmatic phraseology studied by us served as an impetus for the search for new data in modern poetry. Our material, which includes 387 examples of phraseological units identified by the method of continuous sampling from the collection of poems "Impulse. New names." allowed us to develop our own classification of phraseological units. It is based on the principle of structural and semantic changes and includes five types of changes, presented in different percentage and quantitative ratios, namely:

1. Reduction of the component composition -5%;

2. Changing the places of components within a phraseological unit 10%;

3. Extensions of the lexical composition of phraseological units 25%;

4. Paradigmatic changes in the components (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) of phraseological units 20%;

5. Replacement of one or more components 20%.

This work is a logical continuation of the research.

Phraseology is born in the context and in the context its literal meaning is revived. If general linguistic semantics is abstract, then speech semantics is concrete. This concreteness of the speech semantics of phraseology is determined by the situation and context. The specificity of the phraseology context relationship lies in the fact that the phraseological unit represents, firstly, a special independent context and, secondly, is part of the general context. "Since context in a broad sense is nothing more than a speech stream in which linguistic units are specified, but the contextual specificity of phraseology is, in essence, the phraseological specificity of languagespeech interaction" [3, p. 71].

In the course of our research, it was argued that semantic and structural changes within phraseological units are most often interrelated and imply each other. However, the variety of data we have collected has prompted us to consider some semantic changes of phraseological units separately. In our file cabinet, examples of semantic transformations do not occupy as much space as structural ones. If we take their number as a percentage, depending on the total number of phraseological units, then they occupy 30%.

By semantic transformations, we will understand this type of transformation of phraseological units, in which its components fall into occasional combinations with lexemes, the connection with which is not represented in dictionaries.

The word in poetry is multidimensional. In the system of a poetic text, the content of a word is motivated by all its constituent elements. FE in a poetic work create a kind of closed context, within which special occasional meanings of words and combinations of component words arise. The most complete, in-depth understanding of them is associated with entering the context of the poem, the poetic cycle, and the poet's work as a whole.

Let's turn to the material of the collection. In the poem "Black Holes" by Alexander Schmidt, we notice:

If your friend is lying,

The lie is walking in full parade

And the truth wheezes strangled,

- So there is a bottomless hole nearby <...> [2, p. 444].

Let's pay attention to the phraseological unit "in full dress" syntagmatically associated with the lexeme "lie". The phraseological dictionary of the Russian language presents the following meaning of phraseology: In full (in all) parade. In elegant (festive or official) clothes, in festive decoration [4, p. 310].

Such semantics presupposes the compatibility of phraseological units with the nouns "man", less often "animal", and in the dictionary examples there is no mention that this phraseological unit is related to the concepts of "good", "evil", "lie", etc. Therefore, it can be assumed that Alexander Schmidt uses this stable expression in in such an unusual context in order to give the phraseology a special, author's meaning.

The following example from the work of Viktor Korkia is distinguished by a special stylistic marking and an ironic attitude to such a concept as "spiritual and moral values".

We have crossed the limits of frankness,

However, they kept it in reserve

Proven moral values,

Who is worthless now? <...> [2, p. 195].

Let's consider the original dictionary meanings of both phraseological units. 1. In reserve. Simple. In case it is necessary [4, p. 169]. 2. A penny price (on market day) to whom, to what. It has little or no value, is no good, costs nothing [4, p. 513]. Suppose that by using these phraseological units in relation to the concept of "values", the author emphasizes the modern spiritual emptiness of society, noting that people forget about true values.

Marina Smybasheva's poem "Farewell" highlights the following passage:

They'll go to bed.

It will not scratch either in the chest or in the hypochondrium.

And nothing will break through

These locked doors <...> [2, p. 392].

Let's pay attention to the phraseology "scratching at the soul": It scratches on the soul (on the heart) of anyone. Someone is sad, sad, restless, anxious [4, p. 429]. The particle "not" gives the expression a negative meaning, its semantics becomes the opposite and acquires a negative connotation. At the same time, negative connotation is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that implies the unity of semantic, grammatical and pragmatic aspects.

In the poems of Denis Novikov, we find structural and semantic changes:

Does someone else's blood not get away with me,

Or a masochist soul

Now he takes himself to fright,

The power of "Belamor" breathing? <...> [2, p. 292].

In the dictionary we can find three meanings of this phraseology: "Get away with it." Get away with it. 1. To whom. To remain unpunished; to go unpunished without getting publicity. About the actions, deeds of someone. 2. To pass, to end somehow. 3. Outdated. To be sold [4, p. 465]. We are interested in the first meaning, which in this passage is combined with the particle "not" and carries a negative connotation.

Irina Znamenskaya, touching on the topic of human existence, writes the following lines:

And the generation, having matured,

Babbling, blowing bubbles...

A life of emptiness, teeth clenched,

It flows into the empty one <...> [2, p. 137].

An expanded and modified phraseology "to pour from empty to empty" with the meaning: 1. To engage in useless business: to waste time aimlessly; 2. To spend time in conversations, empty chatter [4, p. 316]. Most often, this phraseology is used when talking about business, work, relationships, etc. In this case, the poetess confronts the stable expression used with the lexeme "life", which radically changes the first meaning of this phraseology. "Doing a useless thing" is equivalent to the concept of "life". Thus, the pessimistic mood of the poem gives rise to a new semantic meaning of the phraseological unit.

Another example of the transformation of the positive meaning of a phraseological unit into a negative one is found in the poem "Free Verse" by Sergei Task:

In a certain kingdom, in a certain state

Iambic pentameter and rhyme were abolished,

And other nonsense,

So that poetry does not hover in the clouds <...> [2, p. 372].

"Soar in the clouds" (in the Empyrean, between heaven and earth) To remain in a dreamy state, indulging in fruitless fantasies, not noticing the surroundings [4, p. 69]. This meaning is most often used in relation to a person, and in our case the author speaks in this way about poetry. This underlines the irony of Alexander Tusk's entire poem when he writes about the abolition of such "nonsense" as rhyme and iambic pentameter.

Thus, semantic (author's) transformations include semantic and stylistic transformations that do not affect the lexical and grammatical structure of phraseological units. Transformations of this type include such a technique as the acquisition of an additional semantic shade by phraseology. Changes in the connotative content of a phraseological unit consist in emotive, evaluative, expressive and functional-stylistic components of meaning, inextricably linked with the subject-logical content of a linguistic sign. In our case, phraseological units acquire a negative connotation. Also, there are such changes in phraseological units, during which new meanings appear in the used stable expression.

The study of the collected phraseological units and their distribution by type of change showed that structural changes of various types are widely represented in Russian poetry, specifically in the poems of the twentieth century. These changes and their varieties can be intertwined within the framework of a single poem or even an excerpt.

Examining the collected material, we became convinced that the use of phraseological units can be considered as an element of the idiostyle of modern poets. All the poems are filled with an individual understanding of reality and a message to the reader. Some pragmatic properties of phraseological units are fixed in their semantics and can be qualified as a pragmatic meaning. The emotive and expressive properties of phraseological units in a poetic text are fixed in the minds of native speakers, however, the material under study showed many new semantic shades and meanings of phraseological units that native speakers are not used to using in their speech.

References
1. Danilova, N.N. (1986) The aesthetic function of phraseological units in artistic communication. Collection of scientific tr. Moscow State Pedagogical Institute of Foreign Languages, M. Issue 266. Lexico-phraseological system in aspects of micro- and macrostructures, 104-121.
2. Impulse. New names: A collection of poems. (1989) Moscow: Soviet writer.
3. Mokienko, V. M. (1989) Slavic phraseology: Textbook for universities on speciality. Moscow: Higher School of Economics.
4. Voynova, L.A. (1987) Phraseological dictionary of the Russian language: Over 4000 dictionary entries. Moscow: Rus. yaz.
5. Valgina, N.S. (2003) Theory of text: textbook. Moscow: Logos. 280 p. Retrieved from Retrieved from https://evartist.narod.ru/text14/24.htm
6. Huseynova, T.S. (2015) Transformation of phraseological units in journalistic discourse: an objective regularity. Izvestiya Dagestan State Pedagogical University. Social sciences and humanities, 4(33), 67-71.
7. Naumova, E.V. (1999) The development of the semantics of nominal phraseological units as a factor of their transformation in speech: Dissertation of the Candidate of Philology. N. Novgorod.
8. Machine, O.Y. (1998) Phraseological meaning and its shades: Abstract. dis ... candidate of Philology. sciences. Novgorod.
9. Emirova, A.M. (2020) Russian phraseology in communicative and pragmatic coverage: monograph. Simferopol: OOO "Publishing House "Scientific world".
10. Fedorov, A.I. (2008) Phraseological dictionary of the Russian literary language. Moscow: Astrel: AST.
11. Novikova, Yu.N., Atanova G.Yu. (2017) Lexico-semantic interpretation of Russian phraseological units with components-anthroponyms. Bulletin of the Donbass National Academy of Construction and Architecture, 1(123), 69-73.

Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The reference point for the analysis of phraseological units in the literature has recently become popular. Researchers are concerned with this language level in order to determine the significance of stable units in texts, while at the same time revealing how the construction is transformed in the author's nomination. I think that the issue of semantic transformation of phraseological units raised in the reviewed article is quite interesting, new and relevant. The author of the work stops at the collection "Impulse. New names", explaining that "as the main material for the analysis of contamination of phraseological units, we have chosen a collection of poems of the twentieth century "Impulse. New Names" (1989). This collection contains poems by both beginners (K. Dzhangirov, M. Dubaev, D. Novikov, S. Shcherbakov, etc.), as well as true masters of the word (Yu. Arabov, I. Zhdanov, O.Nikolaeva, M. Shelekhov, etc.) of the 80s", "the collection "Rush" is an attempt at an open talent contest, it is a poetic tournament of various directions and views. The compiler, the editor of the book, and the publishing house sought to show the trends in the development of today's poetry, the polar methods of poetic thinking, and the collision of different ideas and imaginative systems. A new wave of Russian poetry, which connoisseurs of poetry have been waiting for so long and which critics have talked about so much and at random, has nevertheless emerged."The article fully explains the grade of the choice of the methodology of analysis, provides a constructive basis for the work, clarifies the retrospective consideration of the problem: "in early works, we paid special attention to one of the main trends of poets the use of all possible forms and types of phraseological units. The theoretical basis of communicative and pragmatic phraseology studied by us served as an impetus for the search for new data in modern poetry. Our material, which includes 387 examples of phraseological units identified by the method of continuous sampling from the collection of poems "Impulse. The new names "allowed us to develop our own classification of phraseological units." In my opinion, the work can become a model option for writing new related case studies, because it reveals the role / significance of phraseological units in literary texts at the proper level, and argues for the importance of these constructs in the organization of aesthetic space. The style of the composition correlates with the scientific type proper; for example, this is manifested in the following fragments: "phraseology is born in context and its literal meaning is revived in the context. If general linguistic semantics is abstract, then speech semantics is concrete. This concreteness of the speech semantics of phraseology is determined by the situation and context. The specificity of the phraseology context relationship lies in the fact that the phraseological unit is, firstly, a special independent context and, secondly, is part of the general context", or "let's pay attention to the phraseological unit "in full parade" syntagmatically associated with the lexeme "lie". The phraseological dictionary of the Russian language presents the following meaning of phraseology: In full (in all) parade. In elegant (festive or formal) clothes, in festive decorations. Such semantics presupposes the compatibility of phraseological units with the nouns "man", less often "animal", and in dictionary examples there is no mention that this phraseological unit is related to the concepts of "good", "evil", "lie", etc. Therefore, it can be assumed that Alexander Schmidt uses this stable expression in in such an unusual context in order to give phraseology a special, authorial meaning," etc. However, stylistic corrections can be made in the following blocks, for example: "the most complete, in-depth understanding of them is associated with entering the context of the poem, the poetic cycle, the poet's work as a whole ...", or "in our case, phraseological units acquire a negative connotation. Also, there are such changes in phraseological units, during which new meanings appear in the used stable expression", "all poems are filled with an individual understanding of reality and a message to the reader. Some pragmatic properties of phraseological units are fixed in their semantics and can be qualified as a pragmatic meaning," etc. There is enough illustrative background, the examples are successful, and the problem is fully developed: "let's pay attention to the phraseologism "scratches on the soul": It scratches on the soul (on the heart) of anyone. Someone is sad, sad, restless, anxious. The particle "not" gives the expression a negative meaning, its semantics becomes opposite and acquires a negative connotation. At the same time, negative connotation is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon that implies the unity of semantic, grammatical and pragmatic aspects." In general, the text volume is enough to identify the problem and reveal it. In my opinion, the bibliography should be unified, the design / entry in a number of places differs from the standard: for example, " Mokienko V. M. Slavic phraseology: Textbook for universities on spec. "Rus. yaz. and lit." / V. M. Mokienko. 2nd ed., ispr. and add. Moscow: Higher School, 1989.". The conclusion of the text does not contradict the main block: "examining the collected material, we were convinced that the use of phraseological units can be considered as an element of the idiostyle of modern poets. All the poems are filled with an individual understanding of reality and a message to the reader. Some pragmatic properties of phraseological units are fixed in their semantics and can be qualified as a pragmatic meaning. The emotive and expressive properties of phraseological units in a poetic text are fixed in the minds of native speakers, however, the material under study showed many new semantic shades and meanings of phraseological units that native speakers are not used to using in their speech." The material can be used practically, mastering the disciplines of the humanities cycle. I recommend the reviewed article "Semantic transformations of phraseological units in poetic texts of the collection of poems of the twentieth century "Impulse. New names." for publication in the scientific journal "Philology: scientific research".