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Philology: scientific researches

The metaphorical nature of V. Lebedev 's lyrics

Vinokurova Antonina Afanas'evna

PhD in Philology

Associate professor, Department of Northern Philology, Institute of Languages and Culture of the Peoples of North-East of the Russian Federation, Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University

677000, Russia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Kulakovsky str., 42, office 225

Other publications by this author

Oshchepkova Anna Igorevna

PhD in Philology

Associate Professor, Department of Russian Literature of the 20th Century and Literary Theory, North-Eastern Federal University M.K. Ammosova

677000, Russia, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Yakutsk, Kulakovsky str., 42, office 208










Abstract: The authors examine the poetics of metaphor in the lyrics of V. Lebedev, one of the founders of the Even literary tradition. Vasily Dmitrievich Lebedev is a collector of Even folklore, a linguist who creatively reworked and adapted the spiritual heritage of his people in modern poetic forms, thereby breathing new life into the epic and song oral creativity of the Evens. The peculiarity of the poetic style of V. Lebedev, as a representative of young-written literature, is the orientation to folklore poetics. It is metaphoricity that is a characteristic feature of the poet's individual manner. Metaphors in Lebedev 's poetry have a number of features: the transfer of signs of the external world to the phenomena of mental life; folklore character of the metaphor; metaphors that create its unique poetic style; grammatical construction of the metaphor, poetic syntax of the text. The methodological basis of the study is the individual provisions of the works of A.N. Veselovsky, V.M. Zhirmunsky, V.F. Asmus, used in the work as methodological guidelines and premises for specific textual analysis. The research methods are determined by the nature of the text material. The novelty is due to the understanding of the lyrics of the Even poet V. Lebedev as a representative of young-written literatures. The artistic and visual means used by the poet reveal him as a talented master of words and an expert in his native Even language. On the one hand, the poetics of his works form an idea of the poet's individual style. At the same time, Lebedev is a follower of folklore poetics, focusing on the formulaic language of oral tradition. In this context, the metaphoricity of his poetic texts is of particular importance. Let's consider separately the metaphoricity of Lebedev's lyrics. The poetry of the Even writer is distinguished by the allegorical nature of the word, which is needed for a strong emotional impact, to create a visual image, a vivid artistic impression. In the poetry of Vasily Lebedev, we have identified the most interesting metaphors that create his own special author's style.


Lebedev, Even literature, poetics, lyrics, metaphor, poem, image, folklore, song, poetic style

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

V. Lebedev is one of the founders of the Even literary tradition. From the very beginning of the poet's work, literary criticism has been forming ideas about his unique individual style, focused on folklore poetics. According to N.N. Toburokov, one of the first researchers of the work of the Even poet, it is metaphoricity that is a characteristic feature of V. Lebedev's poetic style: "the Even poetic world is characterized by the animation of the surrounding natural environment and the perception of its harmonious beauty characteristic of the world picture of the northern peoples" [6;38].. Based on this authoritative opinion, it seems interesting to consider the poetics of metaphor in V. Lebedev's lyrics.

The axiological analysis of V. Lebedev's works reveals the priority values in the spiritual picture of the world of the Evens. The main value of the Even worldview is the harmony of man with the environment: his poetry is full of national images characteristic of the Northerners. At the same time, V. Lebedev often resorts to the metaphorical nature characteristic of the Young writing tradition. Apparently, metaphoricity is a feature not only of the poetic style in the works, but also of V. Lebedev's worldview.

The lyrics of the Even poet are distinguished by the allegorical nature of speech, which is necessary for the sensory perception of the world picture, for creating an environment, a vivid poetic feeling. Lebedev uses a metaphor for this, in which the transfer of signs of the external world to the phenomena of mental life is most clearly shown. This way of expressing emotional experiences with phenomena of the outside world is suggested by folklore poetics, which, in turn, is based on the figurative nature of the Even language. If you look into the etymology of words denoting emotional experiences in any language, it turns out that they are based on the designations of phenomena of the material world. The spiritual, the abstract, is indicated by such objects, taken in a figurative sense. Even the word "soul" goes back to the word "breath". The same can be said of all abstract words denoting the facts of mental life. Lebedev's poetry is full of auditory images (chivkachan iken - birdsong, birakchan eenni - murmuring stream, upe iken - grandmother's song, ultavki - echo, hugi, hunne wind; spatial higila - taiga, native land bug, etc.; images of movement biniv udyan the road of my life, daggochis the flight of birds, the image of a cloud, Bugdindya kunyaddan the deer Bugdindya jumps, at hatnach erager eenchin the river, always flows tirelessly, detlelken inenil my winged years). So,

- visual image: Nelkeninu toru dassin/ Hunelkam hognavkanni - Spring filled the earth / All living things stirred;

- auditory image: Higi dolan chivkachan/ Orenchimi, doldami - My native language / Is like the cheerful singing of a bird; Chulbanya kuntekle evenheden/ Uldan hin ogas dyapkalan,/ Togemi hin ogus dolchiram - In a green meadow I hear / The sounds of hede evens,/ I can hear the melody.

- image of movement: Badikar nelten enanni, / Tirulevu nabganni / Harpunnadi itivu dalasnan / Taduk khorren, hiruni in the morning the sun looked, clung to my cheeks, touched my face with a ray, then quietly crawled away, left. To reveal the image of time, the poet used the verbs enanni looked, nabganni stuck, dalasnan touched, khorren left, hiruni slipped.

The folklore character of the metaphor can be found in Lebedev's poem, which is written in the genre of a lyrical song. For example:

Umkali bi myavmu nelkani

Imanrav umkeniy nekrigchin.

Min myavmu tarakam hokaldin

Tor oylin bakatlin ikeldin [3]

Melt my heart spring

Melt it like snow

Then my heart will warm up

And he will sing to the whole world

A.N.Veselovsky noted that the basis of lyrical song among all peoples is the comparison of natural phenomena with phenomena of mental life [2;315].

There are metaphors of another type in which the natural phenomena of the inanimate world, especially natural phenomena, are identified by similarity with human life, with human feelings; elements of similarity can be based on the appearance of natural phenomena, on sounds that resemble the sounds of human speech, on movement. We can talk about emotions, about experiences, about the states of a living organism (sleep, awakening, dying, illness), which are attributed in a figurative sense to natural phenomena [2;316]


Minu jav hontadis,

Togemi erager


Daggochis... [5]


Why do I care about you?

You always

Are you wandering,

Fly [A.V.]

V.F. Asmus characterized this kind of metaphor as follows: "A successful metaphor presupposes, according to Aristotle, a combination of accuracy and clarity of comparison, due to the similarity of the compared, with the ingenuity of the poet, connecting the dissimilar and thereby enhancing the effect of the metaphor" [1;131]. Direct metaphorical personification is also associated with this kind of animating nature. Personification can also be of a metonymic order when it is an allegory of an abstract concept. Here we have a metaphorical personification, born from a poetic image based on similarity, on the animation of nature - a kind of new mythology. Romantic poets willingly revive traditional folklore images in their work [2;318].

In the works of V. Lebedev, the image of a deer occupies a significant place in the description of native nature and the region. From the first collections of V. Lebedev, one of the main characters is a deer. So, in the collection "Omchen" [4] we meet: Bugdindya (Riding deer), "Honcham myalukanam" (The fawn was awakened), "Oran iken" (The Song of the deer), "Oram dentun" (Thoughts about the deer); in the collection "Merlenke": "Oralchimna yak garban?" (Who is a reindeer herder?); in the collection "Higi ogalni": "Nelke oran humalan" (Deer in spring), "Khote orar" (Fleet-footed deer). For the Even poet, the deer is above all a hope for the people. Indeed, in the works of V. Lebedev, the favorite hero is a sled deer, a fawn, a vazhenka, a sacred deer. A poetic find can be called the metaphorical nature of poems when the poet gives the deer human speech. So Bugdindya (riding deer), turns to the wind and tells about his past life. Or in the poem "Oran iken" (Song of the deer)

- uchik (the riding deer sang in a human voice):

Tarakam - ka uchikan

Bakekanchin ikelren

- Nyamichan (vazhenka also sings in a human voice):

Tarakam-ka nyamichan

Bakekanchin ikelche

- Encachen (the fawn also sang about himself):

Encachen umtilche

Garkakan nedaschiriv

Echikeken ikelche.

Lebedev is characterized by emotional responsiveness to everything that happens. He does not focus on his personal feelings, rather, on the contrary, expands the horizon of his vision of the world, using for this a special rhythm of expressing his attitude to the environment the familiar rhythm of deer running.

Hot orar





And sharp snow

From under the hooves,

How the foam is whipped up,

It flies in my face.

He's like on wings

My dad


Tiptackenny [5]

Rushing to the house,

And the heart

Knocking furiously

Lebedev's poetry contains unusual metaphors that create his unique poetic style. The metaphorical image of a fawn is the personification of the future, a symbol of joy and beauty of the tundra.

By the followers of tolkantami

Tiendulei hinyasancha.

Heri neche, nodankamu,

Edi myalra, huklali.

This world is made for the brave,

Sleep, gaining strength

The poet pays special attention to the grammatical construction of metaphor, about the poetic syntax of the text. The metaphor in his poems may have the following syntactic functions:

1. Metaphorical identification, when the metaphorical predicate refers to the subject;

Biolandim chivkachan odidi,

Toreni uldadim hitkiklan.

I'll become a bird

And I will clothe everything [A.V.]

Metaphor is an adjective; maryancy gilbaty bigraden is a transparent thought, kimanya togsel is the gathered clouds, detlelken inenil is the winged years.

Bolar hatar hisachin

Yalranya tetiya tattidi

Autumn on a dark evening

The black coat is worn by [A.V.]

Chivkachan kolankann

Birakchan mogchinni

Maryancy gilbati bigraden,

Mani hee hupkutli.

Learn to think

Yours has become bright,

Like a clear streamlet,

From which only birds drink [A.V.]

2. Metaphor is a verb. Verbal metaphors are of particular interest. Verbal metaphors are a source of metaphorical personification, because an action is attributed to an inanimate being, and an active action. An inanimate being becomes a source of active action, as if it were a living being, a human being. Lebedev's poetry is completely saturated with metaphors-verbs, with which the poet paints the movement and beauty of the northern region. For example,

Udan, hi minu ulanri,

Itivu baekachon avanri,

Manriram uyamkan torennin

Hinduk-nyun bugaski darimi

Udan, hi toru kolunri,

Kolamsiv bakkachchon ainri [5].

Rain, you got me wet,

He washed my face,

And I became as hard as the earth of the volcanoes,

And I was running away from you,

Rain, you watered the earth [AV]

Here the poet attributes human qualities to the rain, using the verbs ulanri - soaked, avanri - washed, kolunri - drank, ainri corrected.

Borili mindu hee, nelkan,

Borili nelteni nyamdukun.

Tarakam bi myavmu hueldin,

Huelmi ikelbu ikeldin

Share it with me, spring,

Share your warmth,

And then my heart will boil,

And then my heart will sing [AV]

4) A metaphor can also be expressed in the form of a noun. This kind of metaphor-a noun, a subject metaphor is the basis of what is called a "metaphorical periphrase" Periphrase is a descriptive expression: instead of the exact name of the object, a descriptive figurative expression is used [2;320-321].

Nelke emrin-

Bini huren,

Tarak khuren

Sharon is fishing.

Spring has come-

A moment of life,

This moment

A trace of light [A.V.]

Biniv udyarman taldutten,

Mawatkachin ulbunchin

Tarrachim udarmav ittidur,

Bail backachin myanidur,

Myavansi udyarman govette.

The traces of the road of my life are spreading,

Like the traces of a noose.

Such seeing the trail,

All people are surprised,

They say that this is the heart trace [A.V.].

Most of Lebedev's metaphors are based on impersonation. Lebedev's landscape lyrics are especially metaphorical.

For example, ikeli unet-te mintaki, nyanindya (sing to me again, big sky), okat myalran,/ omekakken nyaddan (the river woke up, shamanizing alone), here for the lyrical hero the sky and the river, singing or leaves can whisper, breaking the silence of the night:

Ebdenral jav hu humkaches,

Delbaru hisachim hoitas

Leaves, what are you whispering about,

Breaking the silence [A.V.].

For the author, nature is alive and playful:

Nelten heridi togachindula nan,

Togachin gyakitan biyalgach evilren.

Taduk nyan nyanin*at khon*alran.

The sun rose and sat on the clouds,

And the cloud began to play with different waves.

Then the big sky began to cry.

Taiga can also dream about tomorrow:


Timinarap ineni



My dense forest



I'm dreaming.

The poet writes about the spring river that the rivers joyfully stirred, the little white streams are rushing, and his sun, having fallen into the water, ran away, admiring its reflection.

Okathal hocknidur osemi hognalra,

Birakchar gulniken makukre.

Nolten mole tikniken hinthamran

Mole mani koetniken.

The rivers, delighted, began to move,

The little white streams are rushing.

The sun, having fallen into the water, ran away

Looking at yourself in the water.

Thus, the analysis of metaphors in the poet's works showed that metaphorical imagery is based on the personification of natural phenomena and on the associativity of the surrounding world with humanity. The author enriched the system of visual means of Even poetry with new, colorful, poetic finds, for example: d ukatlavu degelli, osikatalbu uldeli, namandya huntalan kobeli written fly, giving a sign to the stars, reach the depths of the sea; Byagandya hyakitav gudenny the moon kissed the litswoman; Nebati meng mo nyantaki titkattan - silver water stretches to the sky (oh the river). The unique beauties of natural nature and the spiritual beauty of man are perceived as one whole, harmoniously connected with each other. So, the consideration of V. Lebedev's lyrics allows us to conclude that the individuality of the poet's author's manner is created mainly by the metaphorical nature of his style. The poetics of the metaphor of Lebedev's poems, as a national poet, is focused on the folklore tradition of Even folk poetry.

1. Asmus, V.F. (1968). Questions of the theory and history of aesthetics. Ed.E. Novik. Moscow: Art.
2. Veselovsky, A.N. (1989). Historical poetics. Moskow: Higher School.
3. Lebedev, V. (1968). Dyalbi torenneten. Even language. Yakutsk: Neka torenen book publishing house.
4. Lebedev, V. (1963). Omcheni:Dentur. Even Language. YAkutsk: Neka torenen book publishing house.
5. Lebelev, V. (1965). Higi ogalni. Even language. Yakutsk: Neka torenen book publishing house.
6. Toburokov, N.N. (1999). Andrey Krivoshapkin. Yakytsk, 35-5.

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The article presented for consideration "The metaphoricity of V. Lebedev's lyrics", proposed for publication in the journal "Philology: Scientific Research", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the author's appeal to the study of the characteristics of the writer developing the national literature of one of the peoples inhabiting the Russian Federation, namely V. Lebedev, who is one of the creators of the Even literary tradition. The author studies the peculiarities of Lebedev's poetics, turning to the axiological analysis of the works, which allows us to identify priority values in the spiritual picture of the world of the Evens. In the reviewed work, the author scrupulously examines the mythological nature of the lyrics and the images that the writer creates in his works. Unfortunately, the author does not indicate how large the language corpus selected for the study is, as well as the sampling methodology. The article is innovative, one of the first in Russian philology devoted to the study of such issues. The article presents a research methodology, the choice of which is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the work. The author turns, among other things, to various methods to confirm the hypothesis put forward. Theoretical inventions are illustrated by language examples in the Even language, and convincing data obtained during the study are presented. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing a statement of the problem, the main part, traditionally starting with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and a final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. It should be noted that the conclusion requires strengthening, it does not fully reflect the tasks set by the author and does not contain prospects for further research in line with the stated issues. The bibliography of the article contains only 6 sources, among which works are presented exclusively in Russian. We believe that an appeal to foreign sources on related topics would undoubtedly enrich the reviewed work. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to the fundamental works of Russian researchers, such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. The comments made are not significant and do not detract from the overall positive impression of the reviewed work. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration and may have a logical continuation in further research. The practical significance of the research lies in the possibility of using its results in the teaching of university courses on literary theory, as well as courses on interdisciplinary research on the relationship between language and society. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "The metaphorical nature of V. Lebedev's lyrics" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal.