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Psychology and Psychotechnics
Reference:

The influence of self-esteem on emotional burnout syndrome of law enforcement officers

Rublyova Tatiana

ORCID: 0000-0003-0569-9116

PhD in Medicine

Associate Professor, Department of forensic science, Siberian Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation

660131, Russia, Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk, Rokossovsky str., 20

tat-rubleva@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0722.2023.3.43759

EDN:

XONQYS

Received:

10-08-2023


Published:

18-09-2023


Abstract: The study is devoted to the level of self-esteem and its role in the emotional burnout syndrome in law enforcement officers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the role of self-esteem in the emotional burnout syndrome among law enforcement officers and to compare the content and dynamic characteristics of respondents receiving and not receiving psychotherapeutic help. The subject of the study: the possibility of forming an adequate self-esteem of police officers through the use of psychotherapeutic correction methods. Experimental base of the study: SibUI of the Ministry of Internal Affairs (Krasnoyarsk). Experimental sample of the study: 37 police officers (trainees of the Faculty of Vocational Training), males aged 21 to 35 years. Research methods: "Diagnostics of the level of emotional burnout" V. V. Boyko, "Self-assessment test of personality" S. A. Budassi. In the course of the research, the author developed and implemented a psychotherapeutic program with elements of art therapy. Data processing was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics 24 program. To determine the relationship according to the methods, the correlation coefficient of C. E. Spearman was used. Statistically significant differences in self-esteem and burnout syndrome have been established. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the development of a psychotherapeutic aimed at correcting the low self-esteem of police officers with emotional burnout syndrome. The obtained research results and the developed psychotherapeutic program can form the basis of scientific and methodological recommendations for improving the training and advanced training of psychologists, medical psychologists, employees of government agencies responsible for the mental health of personnel.


Keywords:

emotional burnout, emotional stress, chronic stress, self-esteem, prevention, law enforcement officers, professional activity, psychocorrection program, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, psychotherapeutic assistance

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

Introduction.

In recent years, problematic issues of stress associated with professional activity and, as a consequence, the formation of emotional burnout syndrome, have been the subject of research and discussion by specialists in the field of medicine, psychology, pedagogy.

Emotional burnout syndrome is included in the international classification of diseases ICD-10 under the code Z73 "Problems associated with difficulties in maintaining a normal lifestyle", which indicates the severity of this disorder requiring medical intervention.

Back in 1986 , the American scientist Maslach C. he identified the main signs of emotional burnout syndrome: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (dehumanization in relation to the objects of his activity) and reduction of professional achievements [26].

According to Sudakova M. V. and Smolyaninov M.V., emotional burnout is a form of professional deformation of the personality and develops under the influence of external and internal determinants [20].

Researchers Misbakhov A. A., Rakhimov M. I., Shamgullin A. Z. note that professional burnout is a syndrome that develops against the background of chronic stress and leads to the depletion of emotional, energetic and personal resources of a person [13].

The phenomenon of emotional burnout is most often affected by specialists whose professional duties include communication with other people. Pedagogical, medical, coaching, etc. are at risk. In our opinion, it is advisable to single out law enforcement activities, which include the need to interact not only with law-abiding citizens, but also with elements of the criminal subculture. This fact undoubtedly leaves a certain imprint on the mental health of the employee.

Despite this, to date, the external determinants of burnout have been studied to a greater extent, due to the organizational context in which the activities of employees of educational institutions related to communication take place.

So, Berezina V. A. and Sharov A. A. revealed the relationship of emotional burnout of self-attitude and motivation of teachers' achievements [1], Borovets E. N. and Zavyalova Ya. L. the relationship of symptoms of emotional burnout with the peculiarities of professional motivation of teachers [3].

Magomedova L. V. studied the influence of the emotional burnout syndrome of a teacher affecting productive activity in a team [12], and Safukova N. N. determined that this syndrome proceeds differently in teachers with different types of economic self-determination [18].

The problem of emotional burnout regularly becomes the object of scientific research in sports psychology, but more often the attention of specialists is directed at active athletes, and not at coaches [10, 27].

A lot of research has been devoted to the study of clinical manifestations of emotional burnout syndrome in medical workers, due to the fact that "medical personnel are characterized by such characteristics as responsibility for the health and life of other people, daily contact with various human characters, the need for correct and urgent decision-making, self-discipline, tension of spiritual and physical strength, a large number of stressful situations [14, 23].

In the course of the conducted research, A. E. Shishkin [22], Guerrero-Barona E. with co-authors [24], Maresca G. with co-authors [24], Voultsos P. with co-authors [28], came to the conclusion that emotional burnout among doctors begins to form from the first years of practical activity under the influence of various professional factors and "increases with increasing age of the doctor, work experience" [6].

In addition, the structure of the burnout syndrome of medical workers revealed the personal prerequisites for its formation [4] and several dominant syndromes: asthenic, psychovegetative, cephalgic, anxiety-phobic and mild cognitive impairment syndrome" [21].

A number of works address problematic issues of the formation of emotional burnout among employees of the penal enforcement system [19], which manifests itself in a decrease in interest in the activities performed, communicative tolerance and destructive behaviors [2].

It should be noted that not only psychological problems arising in the activities of teachers, medical workers, and factors and signs of emotional burnout, but also possible options for preventive and rehabilitation work have been investigated [7, 11, 16,].

Despite the fact that the activities of police officers are associated with unpredictability and danger, an increase in violence with the use of firearms, the threat of terrorist attacks, difficulties in operational and official activities, criticism from citizens and society, individual works are devoted to the study of the features of emotional burnout of law enforcement officers.

So, Zabelina T. A. investigated the features of the formation of professional stress and emotional burnout among employees of internal affairs bodies and revealed a direct relationship of the stress resistance index with tension, anxiety, depression, exhaustion [8]. Kaygorodova N. Z. with co-authors revealed that such symptoms of emotional burnout as depersonalization and resistance, manifested in emotional detachment, indifference, cynical attitude to people and situations and negativism, are characteristic of police officers [9]. The study of Rubleva T. Yu. showed that under the influence of stressful factors of official activity, employees develop personal characteristics (addictive behavior, antisocial behavior, etc.) that reduce the effectiveness of their professional activities [17].

At the same time, a review of domestic and foreign studies of emotional burnout syndrome conducted by specialists of the Moscow University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia Bulgakov A.V. and Kulieva T. A. revealed the presence of specialized research models for teachers and teachers, for middle managers, for representatives of commercial services, for medical personnel, for sales workers, but did not find concretizing diagnostics psychological state of police officers [5].

It should be noted that not enough research is devoted not only to the formation of emotional burnout among law enforcement officers, but also to the possibility of prevention, correction, rehabilitation of these manifestations [15].

In this regard, the issues of diagnosis and correction of emotional burnout syndrome among employees of the internal affairs bodies are very relevant.

Considering the above, hypotheses have been put forward that employees with low self-esteem are more susceptible to the occurrence of the syndrome, and the developed correctional program aimed at the formation of adequate self-esteem has a positive psychotherapeutic effect.

Materials and methods.

To confirm this hypothesis, a study was conducted on the basis of the SIBU of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia (Krasnoyarsk).

The study sample consisted of 45 men aged 21 to 35 years, who at the time of the study were students of the Faculty of Professional Training of law enforcement officers.

At the first stage, the group was tested for the presence of emotional burnout using the technique "Diagnostics of the level of emotional burnout" by V. V. Boyko, aimed at studying the leading symptoms of emotional burnout and determining the attitude to the phase of stress development: tension, resistance, exhaustion.

At the next stage of the study, we developed and implemented a psychotherapeutic program in an experimental group (14 subjects who gave voluntary informed consent).

Data processing was carried out using the IBM SPSS Statistics 24 program.

To determine the relationship according to the methods, the correlation coefficient of C. E. Spearman was used.

Results and discussion.

The results of the study on the presence of emotional burnout are presented in Table 1 (the results of respondents with emotional burnout syndrome are highlighted in bold).

Table 1. Results of the methodology "Diagnosis of emotional burnout"

Table 1. Results of the methodology Diagnosis of emotional burnout

Age

Voltage

Resistance

Exhaustion

General

1

22

44

63

43

150

2

28

0

14

5

19

3

30

9

51

31

91

4

33

16

59

21

96

5

29

12

68

45

125

6

27

8

18

8

34

7

29

31

24

48

103

8

26

3

19

8

30

9

30

34

52

22

108

10

26

7

56

34

97

11

21

6

31

8

45

12

25

3

27

8

38

13

23

30

44

33

107

14

30

32

44

26

102

15

27

28

76

44

148

16

28

14

35

10

59

17

29

37

69

15

121

18

23

25

20

13

58

19

28

48

50

77

175

20

25

0

31

22

53

21

24

5

22

0

27

22

27

25

60

19

104

23

22

52

73

33

162

24

24

78

24

30

132

25

24

15

0

14

29

26

26

32

64

12

108

27

22

4

3

0

7

28

21

15

8

0

23

29

30

9

36

55

100

30

27

79

55

37

171

31

26

42

21

81

144

32

29

63

14

2

79

33

26

11

51

33

94

34

22

58

66

53

177

35

28

11

17

19

47

36

23

36

44

32

112

37

30

4

4

36

44

38

24

10

32

56

98

39

34

74

55

40

169

40

35

45

20

83

148

41

29

50

14

3

67

42

23

13

52

32

97

43

21

52

63

50

165

44

33

5

4

0

9

45

32

80

48

24

152

Thus, the presence of a formed burnout syndrome was detected in 62.0% of the subjects, in 38.0% this syndrome was not formed or absent.

Of the respondents with the formed syndrome, 64.0% are dominated by the resistance phase, which manifests itself in resistance to an increasing stress state, attempts to reduce the pressure of external circumstances with the help of available means. The stress phase is determined in 21.0% and in 15.0% of respondents, the exhaustion phase dominates.

Next, a "Personality self-assessment Test" was conducted by S. A. Budassi, the results of which are shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 Results of the methodology "Personality self-assessment test" by S. A. Budassi

Figure 1 Results of the methodology Self-assessment test of personality by S.A.Budassi

According to the results, 35.0% of respondents have an overestimated selfesteem, 60.0% underestimated and only 5.0% - adequate.

The correlation analysis of self-esteem indicators and emotional burnout syndrome is presented in Table 2.

Table 2. The Intercorrelation matrix

Table 2. The Intercorrelation matrix

Self-assessment

Burnout

Self-assessment

0,100

0,324*

Burnout

- 0,324*

0,100

* - Correlation is significant at 0.05

Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship according to the methods. The obtained result showed an inverse relationship between the indicators of the level of self-esteem according to the method of S. A. Budassi and the level of emotional burnout according to the method of V. V. Boyko (r = - 0.32, p?0.05). Thus, the lower the self-esteem, the higher the level of emotional burnout.

Comparing the results of the research methods, the control (n=14) and experimental groups (n=14) were determined. The criteria for including employees in the study were: age from 21 to 35; low self-esteem; the presence of emotional burnout syndrome; informed consent.

In order to correct self-esteem, a program was developed and implemented aimed at overcoming feelings of insecurity, stiffness, forming positive thinking and accepting oneself as a successful and self-confident person.

Tasks: obtaining the skill of expressing oneself through creativity and game forms of activity; acquiring the skill of forming an active life position; the possibility of realizing the value of one's own personality; obtaining the opportunity to strengthen a positive attitude towards oneself.

The duration of the psychotherapy program was 6 weeks (12 sessions of 135 minutes each). The number of participants is 14 people (experimental group).

The following forms of classes were used: a lecture with conversation elements, including a small amount of theoretical material; interactive conversations; meditation; auto-training, art therapy. Elements of ATP therapy (isotherapy, maskotherapy, collage, drama therapy) contribute to the release of intrapersonal conflict outside; make it possible to realize repressed feelings and inner experiences and develop the skill of differentiating them; increase self-esteem; give the opportunity to get rid of unnecessary and change your life; relieve emotional stress; help to live repressed emotions in a safe environment, free yourself from psychological and bodily clamps, to live through the game unfulfilled expectations. The structure of the psychotherapeutic program is presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Structure of the psychotherapeutic program

Table 3. Structure of the psychotherapeutic program

Block

Tasks

Methods and techniques of correction of the emotional sphere

Installation

(1 lesson)

- setting a friendly atmosphere within the group;

- encouragement to cooperate with a psychologist;

- formation of internal motivation to undergo correctional work

- dating exercises,

- elements of isotherapy: drawing a mandala

Correctional (10 classes)

- reducing the level of anxiety of group members;

- development of the optimal way to respond in a stressful situation;

- training in the formation of positive thinking.

- building self-confidence.

- formation of adequate self-esteem;

- exchange of experience in difficult life situations;

- correction of self-esteem through self-training;

- increased motivation for personal growth.

- meditation;

- auto-training;

- isotherapy ("image of dependence", "image of my self", "body image", "inner child", "work with fear", "me and others");

- maskotherapy ("mask of resentment", "mask of guilt", "mask of shame")

- drama therapy ("a scene about resentment").

Control

(1 lesson)

Identification of changes; discussion of the results of joint work, summing up, strengthening the mood for further independent work.

Completion of the dynamics of the group process, collage on the theme "image of the world", repeated diagnostic examination.

As an example, we give the plan and stages of one of the classes of the program on the topic "Me and other people" (duration 135 minutes).

1. Greeting of the class participants (15 minutes). The participants greet the group members in a circle and share their current internal state.

2. The game "Five minutes of Democracy" (15 minutes). Purpose: To establish an informal environment, motivation for active work in the group. Improving communication skills. Tracking group dynamics.

Participants are asked to recall how the exercise went last week and how they planned to prove themselves in this exercise today. After that, participants are reminded that within five minutes, everyone can talk on any topic of interest to them, or listen to other participants. The whole process during this exercise is regulated by the group itself.

Reflection. Participants are asked to answer the questions: what was the difference between your behavior today and the behavior in the last lesson? How would you like to prove yourself during this exercise in the next lesson?

3. Discussion of the last lesson (10 minutes). Purpose: Reflection of the internal state, answers to the questions that have arisen. Exchange of thoughts and insights that arose after past classes.

4. Lecture "Psychogenetic theory of personality Yu. V. Valentika. Personal status I am a member of the group" (20 minutes). Purpose: formation of internal motivation to participate in the psychotherapeutic process through the formation and reconstruction of normative personal statuses.

5. Exercise "Contact with the world" (30 minutes). Purpose: self-knowledge, self-exploration, identification of unrealized needs, improvement of communication skills, research of personal boundaries.

Participants are invited to put masks on their eyes and stand in any selected place in the room and act according to the instructions.

"Now we need to start moving slowly in an arbitrary direction, making a buzzing sound. At the same time, you must move in such a way that you do not touch each other."

After a few minutes, the psychologist asks you to stop and listen to the following instructions.

"Now, while moving, you can touch other participants with the back of your hands. At the same time, the tone of the buzzing indicates that you are making contact. If someone tries to make contact with you, you have the right to accept it or reject it, using the intonation of buzzing. Or by stepping aside"

Reflection. Questions: how did you move in the first version of the exercise? Would you like to be closer to other people, or vice versa further away from them? Did you choose which direction to move in, or was it influenced by others? Did you come into contact with other people in the second version of the exercise? Have you been reciprocated or rejected by your contact? How did you feel about it? How did you feel and how did you behave when other people tried to contact you?

6. Exercise "Me and other people" (20 minutes). Purpose: To consolidate the skills acquired during the lesson. Normalization of emotional state

Participants are invited to draw a drawing on the theme "Me and other people" and write a short story on this topic. After that, the participants share their works. The psychologist and other participants ask emerging questions and share their responses.

7. Meditation "Inner relaxation" (15 minutes). Goal: normalization of emotional state, reduction of anxiety.

Participants sit in a comfortable position with their eyes closed and, under the guidance of a psychologist, immerse themselves in guided meditation.

Reflection: the participants briefly share the images that came during the meditation.

8. The final lap (10 minutes). Exchange of impressions.

To determine the effectiveness of the measures carried out, repeated diagnostics was carried out using the same diagnostic package of techniques as at the ascertaining stage with the participation of the control group.

As a result of calculations of the Wilcoxon T-test for self-assessment in the experimental group, the value of Temp = 20 was obtained.

Critical values of T at n=15 for the level of statistical significance: Tcr=15 (p?0.01), Tcr=25 (p?0.05). Therefore, Temp <Tcr, the indicators after the experiment exceed the values of the indicators before the experiment. The differences in the results of the study are statistically significant (p?0.05).

As a result of calculations of the Wilcoxon T-test to assess the level of burnout in the experimental group, the value of Temp = 22 was obtained.

Critical values of T at n=15 for the level of statistical significance: Tcr=15 (p?0.01), Tcr=25 (p?0.05). Therefore, Temp <Tcr, the indicators after the experiment exceed the values of the indicators before the experiment. The differences in the results of the study are statistically significant (p?0.05).

The obtained results revealed that the value of self-esteem indicators and the level of burnout are mathematically included in the zone of significance, while statistical analysis of the indicators of the control group did not reveal significant changes, which indicates the effectiveness of the implementation of the psychotherapeutic program.

To compare self-esteem indicators in the control and experimental groups, we use the U-Mann-Whitney criterion to assess differences.

We calculate the rank sums for the sample and get the value of Uemp = 30, compare the value of Uemp and Ucr.

Ucr=}42 (p?0.01) and 55 (p?0.05).

Uemp<Ucr (30<55) at the significance level p?0.05. The differences in the results of the study are statistically significant (p?0.05).

A comparative analysis of the secondary study data using the U-Mann-Whitney criterion revealed a positive dynamics of changes in the level of self-esteem in the experimental group relative to the control group.

To compare the indicators of the burnout level of the control and experimental groups, we use the U-Mann-Whitney criterion to assess the differences.

We calculate the rank sums for the sample and get the value of Uemp = 29, compare the value of Uemp and Ucr.

Ucr=}42 (p?0.01) and 55 (p?0.05).

Uemp<Ucr (29<55) at the significance level p?0.05). The differences in the results of the study are statistically significant (p?0.05).

A comparative analysis of the secondary study data using the U-Mann-Whitney criterion revealed the reliability of differences in the level of emotional burnout in the experimental group relative to the control group.

The obtained results established an increase in the level of self-esteem and a decrease in the level of emotional burnout among police officers, which indicates the effectiveness of psychotherapy work.

Conclusion.

As a result of the initial examination, the presence of a formed emotional burnout syndrome was revealed by 62.0% of the surveyed, which indicates the negative impact of factors that take place in the professional activities of law enforcement officers.

In addition, 60.0% of employees have low self-esteem, which does not allow them to fully realize themselves in their professional activities.

The obtained result revealed an inverse relationship between the indicators of the level of self-esteem according to the method of S. A. Budassi and the level of emotional burnout according to the method of V. V. Boyko (r = - 0.32, p?0.05), which confirmed the hypothesis: the lower the self-esteem, the higher the level of emotional burnout.

The analysis of the data on the implementation of a psychotherapeutic program aimed at correcting self-esteem revealed a statistically significant decrease in the level of emotional burnout (p?0.05) against the background of an increase in the level of self-esteem (p?0.05) in the respondents of the experimental group, while there were no statistically significant changes in the control group.

In addition, statistically significant changes in the indicators of self-esteem and emotional burnout of the comparison of the control and experimental groups (p <0.05) prove the presence of a positive therapeutic effect of the psychotherapeutic program.

Thus, the obtained results proved the effectiveness of the developed psychotherapeutic program, which can be used by medical psychologists in the work of law enforcement officers to correct the burnout syndrome by forming an adequate self-esteem.

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The object of the research in the article submitted for review is the emotional frustration of police officers, the subject is its correlation with self-esteem. The relevance of the work is beyond doubt, since the profession in question is one of the most socially significant, assumes a high level of responsibility, and therefore stress as a source and factor of burnout. The methodology of the article assumes a single theoretical and practical part, while the main method is experiment, which is fully justified by the vector that is set by the title of the work. The theoretical part only meets the generally accepted requirements for scientific research with a significant degree of relativity, and this will be discussed in more detail below. The practical part is performed at a level sufficient for the study of the type of journal article. The author uses mathematical methods of processing the results, which allows to ensure their validity. The experiment was conducted in accordance with generally accepted methodological canons, with the allocation of experimental and control groups. However, the work would benefit if, following the results of a practical experiment, the author presented an interpretation of the data with the generation of original points of view, identifying the causes of a particular state of affairs, the nature of relationships, etc. The list of references meets the requirements and finds a real meaningful reflection on the pages of the work. The text is written in a language that corresponds to the norms of scientific style. A spelling inaccuracy has been discovered, "despite" it is necessary to write together. There are the following comments on the article. The conclusions present generalizing phrases instead of original substantive theses. The theoretical part is not written in full accordance with the requirements for a research text. This is expressed in the following. The volume of the theoretical part is too small, this also applies to the article as a whole, it takes up almost as much text as the list of references from 28 sources, which creates a certain imbalance.In the theoretical part, the author does not present original arguments, in fact, each phrase ends with a link to the source. Despite the wealth of sources, the theory does not provide a descriptive analysis of scientific experience listing specific surnames, contributions of authors and research vectors. The theory talks about the burnout of both doctors, teachers, and police officers themselves. If examples of professions that are not declared as the object of research are given, it is necessary to conduct a comparative analysis, which may have quite significant substantive value in this context. To summarize the above, it can be said that the theoretical part of the manuscript touches upon, designates, but does not reveal in an analytical understanding the essential and substantive aspects of the subject. Conclusion: the presented text is more like abstracts for a practical conference (both in terms of volume and structure of the manuscript), however, taking into account the relevance and scientific content, it can be published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the psychological and pedagogical field.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The relevance of this topic is not easy to determine, since, judging by the title of the article, the author is trying to investigate "the influence of self-esteem on the occurrence of burnout syndrome among law enforcement officers." But the article does not provide any justification for the relevance of the stated topic at all. The author simply writes about emotional burnout among employees of various specialties, but this does not correspond to the stated topic. Therefore, it is necessary to show the rationale for the relevance of the study in relation to its subject. But the subject of the study is not specified in the text either. Therefore, it is unclear what this article is about. The introduction is not structured. It lacks information not only about the relevance and subject of the study, but also about its scientific novelty and methodology. There is even no formulation of the purpose of the study. Accordingly, the entire text is perceived as substandard. The entire introduction requires a fundamental revision and exclusion of phrases such as "In recent years, problematic issues of stress associated with professional activity and, as a result, the formation of emotional burnout syndrome are the subject of research and discussion by specialists in the field of medicine, psychology, and pedagogy." What recent years does the author have in mind? This topic has been thoroughly researched for a long time. Therefore, the author needs to analyze the literature data in accordance with the subject of his research. The concept of "an employee of the internal affairs bodies" is very general and it is fundamentally wrong to equate all such employees with respect to the risks of emotional burnout. But the author does not specify who exactly he means and simply writes that "the activities of police officers are associated with unpredictability and danger, increased violence with the use of firearms, the threat of terrorist attacks, difficulties in operational activities, criticism from citizens and society." And at the same time, "single works are devoted to the study of the features of emotional burnout of employees of the internal affairs bodies." And at the same time, the author himself writes that the phenomenon of emotional burnout is more often affected by specialists whose professional duties include communication with other people. Teaching, medical, coaching, etc. are at risk. This means that it is necessary to differentiate the object of the study and show who was examined for the influence of self-esteem on the occurrence of burnout syndrome in law enforcement officers. The indication that "the sample of the study consisted of 45 men aged 21 to 35 years, who at the time of the study were students of the Faculty of Professional training of employees of internal affairs bodies," in this case does not convince that this was a homogeneous group. The style of presentation of the text is exploratory. The author's attempts to show his work are visible and this causes respect, since the problem of emotional burnout requires a solution. The structure of the work does not meet the accepted requirements for the logic of constructing scientific texts. It was mentioned above that there are no such important elements of a scientific article as the justification of relevance, subject, scientific novelty, methodology, and even the purpose of the study. In addition, the text shows that the author is moving away from the title of the article and seeks to show the effectiveness of the correctional program. This is a completely different topic, which has nothing to do with the primary idea at all, judging, again, only by the title of the article. The content of the text is very contradictory. Firstly, the tables are not readable. The first table shows the usual protocol in a primitive way. The average values have not been calculated and all quantitative indicators are therefore not convincing. Although the author concludes that of the respondents "with the formed syndrome, 64.0% have a dominant resistance phase, manifested in resistance to an increasing stressful state, attempts to reduce the pressure of external circumstances with the help of available means. The stress phase is determined in 21.0% and the exhaustion phase dominates in 15.0% of respondents." Based on what, was this syndrome diagnosed? And more. The illiteracy of writing concepts is simply striking when resistance is called resistance. The same can be said for other tables and figures. They are unreadable and therefore inconclusive. The author, there is a certain order of design of the illustrative material, it is the headings before the content. It needs to be mastered. Attention is drawn to the desire to substantiate conclusions based on unreadable tables with statistical evidence. Thus, it is noted that "to determine the effectiveness of the measures carried out, a repeated diagnosis was carried out using the same diagnostic package of techniques as at the ascertaining stage with the participation of the control group. As a result of calculations of the Wilcoxon T-test for self-assessment in the experimental group, the value of Temp = 20 was obtained. Critical values of T at n=15 for the level of statistical significance: Tcr=15 (p?0.01), Tcr=25 (p?0.05). Therefore, the Temp

Third Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

Review of the article "The influence of selfesteem on the occurrence of emotional burnout syndrome in law enforcement officers" The subject of the study is the influence of self-esteem on the occurrence of emotional burnout syndrome in law enforcement officers. The title of the article clearly reflects the essence of the work. The research methodology is based on traditional methods of psychological research. The author states the methods of reviewing and analyzing the literature, as well as conducting an experimental study using a formative experiment. In the theoretical part of the work, methods of scientific and theoretical analysis, synthesis and generalization of literature on the problems of emotional burnout are used. 45 respondents took part in the applied part of the work, all students of the Faculty of Professional Training of law enforcement officers. The respondents are in the same age group - from 21 to 35 years old. Thus, the sample is selected by gender, age and type of activity. For diagnosis in the study, the author claimed the technique of V.V.Boyko "Diagnosis of the level of emotional burnout". To diagnose self-esteem, the methodology of studying the level of self-esteem by S. A. Budassi was used. Statistical data analysis was carried out using the SPSS Statistics 24 software. The conclusions are made using correlation analysis and using the calculation of averages. Conclusions about the differences between the studied indicators in the control and experimental groups were made using the U-Mann-Whitney criterion to assess the differences. The relevance of the presented article is beyond doubt. The interest in the study of burnout syndrome in connection with its growth in society is increasingly important. In addition, the study of burnout syndrome in relation to specific types of professional activities that are carried out under conditions of increased stress is of significant interest. These include internal affairs officers. It is important that such studies can become a starting point for important conclusions from the point of view of modern approaches to the psychology of professional activity, including in terms of prevention of burnout syndrome. Scientific novelty the novelty of the research is associated with the use of a psychotherapeutic program. In fact, the novelty is due to the methodological part of the study. In case of proof of the effectiveness of the program, the study may also have a practical one. The importance for scaling up the practice of psychotherapy in relation to employees of the internal affairs bodies. Style, structure, content The article does not follow the traditional structure the introductory, main and final parts. The author at the beginning of the article in the introduction argues for the choice of the topic, then describes the methodological issues and the organization of the empirical part. Next, he makes a review of the literature (although it was logical to do it before describing the subject of the study) and again proceeds to describe the methodology. The introductory part justifies the choice of topic. A qualitative review of research on related topics is presented. The main part of the article presents work on the hypothesis that employees with low self-esteem are more susceptible to the syndrome, and the developed correctional program aimed at forming adequate self-esteem has a positive psychotherapeutic effect. In the applied part of the study, the author uses tables and a graph in the description. In general, they are informative, but it is better to exclude table No. 1 from the article, since it has a summary character. It presents the values of the diagnosed burnout syndrome for all 45 respondents. It is advisable to systematize the table, for example, to highlight the representation of tension, resistance and exhaustion by groups of subjects. It is possible to do this according to the levels of burnout syndrome. In this part of the article, a correlation analysis is also carried out to assess the relationship between self-esteem and burnout syndrome. In conclusion, the author draws conclusions about the effectiveness of the developed psychotherapeutic program. The style of presentation is accessible to perception. The style of the article meets the requirements of science. It is designed in general competently. The bibliography includes 26 literary sources, including an English edition. Among the literary sources are monographs, articles, classical publications, collections of conference materials. The literary sources are dated from different periods, including the latest data for 2019-22. The list of references is designed in accordance with the requirements for the publication of scientific articles and is quite extensive in line with the subject under consideration. Appeal to opponents the article can be recommended for publication. The degree of its significance is quite high both from the point of view of a theoretical review, and from the point of view of applied tools, which the author states in terms of a formative experiment using a psychotherapeutic program. Conclusions, the interest of the readership the article will undoubtedly arouse the interest of the readership doctors, psychologists, psychotherapists, researchers, psychology teachers.