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PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal
Reference:

"Russian Jazz" by Nikolai Levinovsky in the context of Russian Jazz Art of the 1970s-1980s.

Ovchinnikov Pavel

ORCID: 0000-0003-3334-0856

Associate Professor at the Department of Pop and Jazz Music, Kosygin State University of Russia

117997, Russia, Moscow region, Moscow, Sadovnicheskaya str., 33

silversoniq@gmail.com
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2453-613X.2023.3.40880

EDN:

UTXFWQ

Received:

30-05-2023


Published:

08-06-2023


Abstract: The subject of the research is the work of jazz pianist and composer Nikolai Yakovlevich Levinovsky, the creator and leader of one of the most popular jazz ensembles in the 1980s, "Allegro", a representative of Russian jazz. His performing and composing activities during the 1970s and 1980s are considered in the socio-cultural context that determines the transformation of ideological and cultural norms. The author evaluates the activity of the Philharmonic chamber jazz ensemble "Allegro" by N. Y. Levinovsky as an important factor in activating the process of institutionalization of jazz in the Soviet cultural space. The evolution of N. Levinovsky's compositional thinking, which turned in the 1980s to experiments contributing to the formation of the autoimage of Soviet jazz, is considered. The author reveals the peculiarity of N. Ya. Levinovsky's compositional thinking, the stylistic relief of whose compositions was formed by a system of interpenetration of jazz music techniques and lado-intonation structures of national cultures. Based on the analysis of concert performances and studio recordings of the Allegro jazz ensemble, the specificity of the ensemble sound is revealed, the novelty of N. Y. Levinovsky's approach to the embodiment of the stylistics of swing or jazz-rock compositions is determined. The conclusion is made that N.Y. Levinovsky's compositional work is planned to bring jazz music techniques closer to national musical traditions, which contributes to the further development of jazz art, the expansion of the geography of its popularization and productive assimilation.


Keywords:

Nikolay Yakovlevich Levinovsky, Allegro jazz ensemble, Soviet jazz, Russian jazz, jazz composer, jazz piano player, jazz rock, rock music, big band, jazz festival

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

The celebration of the centenary of Russian jazz in 2022 revealed the undying interest in it not only of performers and listeners, but also of researchers. The focus of attention of domestic and foreign scientists is increasingly on various periods of the development of Russian jazz (Ogorodova, Shebanova, Jagovdik [12; 13], Yurchak [22], Roberts [19], Star [20]), which makes it possible to fill in the gaps in the study of the history of the formation of metropolitan and regional performing schools. Meanwhile, outstanding figures of Russian jazz have not yet received a proper assessment, among which we note Nikolai Yakovlevich Levinovsky is one of the brightest representatives of the Moscow jazz school of the 1970s and 1980s.

The creativity of N. Y. Levinovsky is directly connected with the socio-cultural context and is largely conditioned by it. It was the late Soviet period, the Brezhnev era of "stagnation and reaction" [21, p. 20], a time of transformation of ideological and cultural norms. In the 1970s, the attitude to the field of jazz performance changed significantly in Russian culture. This was facilitated by the weakening of ideological control, which shifted towards rock music and bard songs, strengthening their creative positions during this period. It was in the 1970s that the sphere of rock music expanded (the "weighting" and "metallization" of hard rock, the appearance of punk rock, disco), the Bardic song demonstrates its capabilities in expanding plots and artistic images, its classics become V. Vysotsky, A. Galich, S. Nikitin, etc.). It is indicative, that in the 1989 manual "Rock Music: Aesthetics and Ideology" of the series "To help the lecturer" it was noted that already in the 1970s. "the authority of rock music among young people allowed not only the music itself, but even its name, to be commercially exploited. This led to the emergence of many bands with the prefix "rock" (art rock, conceptual, avant-garde, "electronic" rock), which immediately "introduced them to the rank of modern, youth, popular" [9, p. 15]. It is to rock music and the bard song that the attention of a significant part of the youth audience has now been attracted, for which jazz has ceased to be an actual direction.

The weakening of interest in jazz on the part of young people was compensated by the attention of concert organizations. Jazz has become legalized and has become a full-fledged part of state cultural programs. Many Soviet philharmonic societies conduct cycles of jazz concerts. They were preceded by a preliminary examination procedure: after listening to the program, the concert status of the jazz collective was approved at the art councils: composition and repertoire, geography of tours.

As a result of cooperation with philharmonic cultural projects, jazz artists continued the process of institutionalization of jazz, and the material base of jazz soloists and collectives was strengthened: they were legally registered as employees of the philharmonic, the tariff rate of concert performances was applied in payment. For jazz musicians, it was a real revolution: if "in 1949 they could be imprisoned for jazz, in 1959 they could be expelled from the conservatory" [7, p. 199], then since 1965 jazz could be performed at festivals, earn a laureate diploma, but not receive any financial rewards. This forced jazz musicians to get into pop orchestras, to play along with singers, but now jazz lovers officially became professional musicians. Initially, the official status of a soloist was mainly given to pianists, all other members of the jazz collective were defined in the philharmonic as accompanists, but in the mid-1970s it was decided to design jazz musicians as soloists of chamber ensembles. Of course, this contributed to the consolidation of the equal status of the members of the jazz collective. Nevertheless, the registration of a jazz collective in the Philharmonic was still considered a risky business: the Moscow jazz-rock ensemble "Arsenal" by A. Kozlov, which gathered a huge audience in the halls, in 1975 was forced to settle not in the capital, but in the Kaliningrad Regional Philharmonic.

In 1978, the status of philharmonic chamber jazz ensembles was given to the Ensemble "Allegro" by N. Ya. Levinovsky and "Cadence" by Herman Lukyanov.Let's look at the activities of N.Ya. Levinovsky in more detail to understand his contribution to the development of the Moscow jazz school.

Nikolay Yakovlevich Levinovsky, a graduate of the theoretical composition faculty of the Saratov State Conservatory named after L. V. Sobinov (1974), by the time of the formation of the Allegro jazz ensemble (1978) already had experience in ensemble performance, musical direction and preparation of jazz arrangements in Tula, Saratov and Moscow (after moving to the capital in 1969) jazz groups, in particular, in the jazz orchestra of A. Kroll, E. Rosner, the ensemble "Melody" by B. Frumkin. His jazz ensemble "Allegro", after receiving the status of a philharmonic jazz collective, conducted active touring activities both within the country and abroad, was repeatedly declared the best jazz ensemble of the USSR. The performance of the Allegro ensemble included and gained popularity treatments, fantasies on Russian folk themes and author's compositions by N. Y. Levinovsky ("Tumblers", 1969, "Ringing Bells", 1972, "In the folk spirit", "Volga melodies", 1978, "Legend", "In this World", 1980, "Jazz Symphonietta", 1985), V. Konovalova (Fantasy on the theme of the Russian folk song "They gave to the young"). Levinovsky noted in his autobiographical book "Keep a Square, dude!" that the Russian theme was an important theme of his works, starting from the earliest stage the creation in 1964 of the composition "Russia is the Holy Land" (not publicly performed) and continued during participation in the collectives of Kroll, Rosner, during the creation and the creative activity of the Allegro ensemble.

During the 1970s, V. Aksenov played an important role in the ideological justification of jazz as freedom, in the formulation of the problem of the "Russianness" of Soviet jazz. Russian Russian jazz, emphasizing that "jazz is an international art" [1, p. 75], the writer reflected on the autoimage of Soviet jazz, finding its roots in classical Russian literature, in the works of F. Dostoevsky: "Folklore is not at all necessary in order to play in Russian. Russian Russian just needs to be in the soul, deeply feel the spirit of Russia, and then there will be Russian jazz. You ask why drama, anguish, melancholy? Because Russian jazz comes from Dostoevsky" [1, p. 114]. "The stylist" A. Kozlov echoed his friend Aksenov, noting that the fascination with American music did not mean low worship, in parallel, the artist was in the process of studying Russian folklore, Orthodox spiritual traditions [6, p. 50].

The stylistics of N. Levinovsky's compositions is based on the interaction of the techniques of American jazz performance and the traditions of Russian folk singing. Analyzing the playing method of John Coltrane [16, p. 35], who became the "guiding star" of the N. Levinovsky quartet (in addition to him, V. Konovaltsev, V. Epaneshnikov, N. Nikolenko were part of it), the musician realizes the proximity of the innovations of modal (fret) jazz that arose in the 1960s, in which improvisation was not built on chord sequences, and on extended melodic constructions sustained on one foundation, at a certain stage of the scale Aeolian, Ionian, Lydian, Dorian, etc. All this seemed new, original, created a feeling of meditative immersion in a lasting ecstatic state [5, p. 178]. The stylistic relief of the composition was formed by a system of interpenetration of jazz music techniques and lado-intonation structures of national cultures [8, p. 138].

The openness of modal (fret) jazz techniques for synthesis with national traditions of musical thinking attracted N. Levinovsky and became a characteristic feature of his compositional style, defined by the musician himself as "Russian jazz" [7, p. 92]. Even in the performing manner of saxophonist V. Konovaltsev, a member of the N. Levinovsky quartet, a special sound crystallized: in his solos he found a special dynamic and timbre brightness, up to sharpness, striving to convey the "wild pagan rites" of Russian folklore [7, p. 137].

The "avant-gardist" N.Ya. Levinovsky was distinguished by a craving for experiments. In the 1980s. Levinovsky, realizing the listeners' craving for rock music, decides to introduce elements of "guitar rock" into the sound of the Allegro ensemble. It was a time of youth's fascination with the "Weather Report" groups, the creativity of Ch. Corea [18, p. 37], H. Hancock [20, p. 397]. Levinovsky invites N. Gromin, but he soon leaves the USSR, and the head of the Allegro ensemble begins to introduce jazz-rock and disco techniques into his arrangements and author's compositions.

Concert performances and studio recordings of "Allegro" allow us to analyze the peculiarities of the ensemble sound, to determine the novelty of N. Y. Levinovsky's approach to the embodiment of the stylistics of swing or jazz-rock compositions. The concert performance of the Allegro jazz ensemble in the Ostankino Concert Studio (1988) and the recording of the jazz suite "Five Novellas", performed by the Melody ensemble of B. Frumkin (All-Union Recording Studio 1988, release - 1990) demonstrate the characteristic features of N. Ya. Levinovsky's compositional style: the combination of a chant thematism with jazz motor skills, the creation of complex modern arrangements by combining the timbres of acoustic and electronic instruments, alternating techniques of tonal and atonal music, contrasting symmetry and asymmetry in the structure of compositions. Thus, in the composition "Procession", the artistic image is based on a contrasting combination of the ostinate rhythm of drums and refined melodies of solo instruments (electric piano, trumpet and saxophone), structural clarity (variational form) here is adjacent to the freedom of improvisational sections of solo parts. The "Interlude" is free in form, has a wave structure of gradual dynamic increase and sharp decline in sonority, is saturated with atonal sections, sonorous colors of clusters in the piano part. The popular "Song of Fading Flowers" is based on a specific timbre ensemble sound (the synthesizer is tuned to the timbre of the flute, it is complemented by a double bass and small percussion instruments). The composition is based on the variational principle of the development of thematic material, which helps to consolidate the melody in the listeners' memory and helps to understand the ways of their transformation [11, p. 50]. This principle of shaping attracted the composer when he was fascinated by the work of Chick Corea, who created the ensemble "Return to Forever" ("Return Forever"), who left the avant-garde experiments obscure to the general public in the direction of jazz-rock, exciting the modern listener.

Levinovsky's turn in the direction of rock music seems to be no coincidence, it reflects the trends of the time. In the era of the active introduction of sound recording and sound-transmitting equipment into the sphere of cultural communications, new directions appear (rock music, jazz rock, art rock), against which jazz began to be perceived by the listener more passively, it became primarily auditory in the way of perception, its kinesthetic orientation decreased [17, p. 63]. Modern research in the field of acoustics and psychophysiological effects of music contains a conclusion about the influence of these factors on the aesthetic perception of music (Goldberg [3], Borisova [2]). Rock music based on the dominance of accentuated rhythmics differs from jazz installations on the techniques of shifting the listener's "inner metronome" using the off-beat principle the introduction of numerous syncopations and accentuated weak lobes into the musical text. Due to the clear accent rhythm, rock music produces the effect of immersing the listener in a trance, and, on the other hand, the increased dynamics of the sound causes an activation of perception, turning the concert into a show, giving the listener "a feeling of outburst of emotions and, in part, a state of catharsis" [10, p. 152]. The desire to combine the techniques of jazz and rock music is manifested in the work of many musicians of the late 1960s. N. Levinovsky contributes to this expansion of this trend, which aims to involve the listener with the world of jazz and show its inexhaustible artistic resources.

Folklore, jazz and avant-garde techniques of academic music, methods of arrangement, drawn from the best samples of modern music, became elements of a kind of creative synthesis, which became the basis of N.Ya. Levinovsky's individual compositional style, artistic image. His talent as an arranger was extremely in demand in the performing environment (he made arrangements of many melodies by A. Babajanyan, his arrangements of popular melodies by American jazz composers were performed by the Melody ensemble, L. Merabov's orchestra, and became the basis for the success of the Allegro jazz ensemble). It is noteworthy that the musician in his biographical book notes the influence on the orchestral style of the author's compositions not only the experience of listening to recordings of outstanding American jazz ensembles (a combination of solo wind instruments and orchestral sound from B. Goodman, the refinement of orchestral sound from D. Ellington), but also the orchestral principles of D.D. Shostakovich, who even answered the letter of the young musician, who made the dramatic principles of the form and instrumentation of his 15th symphony the subject of his conservatory diploma. Levinovsky was surprised to note that the work on the topic unexpectedly fascinated him, and he discovered many useful techniques for composition techniques, the ability to work with thematic material, to build the form of an essay [7, p. 151].

Recognition of N.Ya. Levinovsky's artistic success was the repeated announcement of his "musician of the year", and the Allegro ensemble "The best jazz ensemble of the USSR".The musician's name is noted in the Soviet Musical Encyclopedia in a series of those composers who sought to combine jazz with Russian folklore and professional musical traditions.

After moving to the USA in 1990, he restored the Allegro group for Russian performances, organized a big band in New York (the Nick Levinowski Orchestra, which includes S. Gurbeloshvili, A. Sipyagin, B. Kozlov, B. Parson, E. Middleton, E. Gravish, N. Bless, etc.) and the company "NLO-Records" for the performance and studio recording of their own compositions (albums "WADE Barthes Sextet", 1993; "Listen Up. Nick Levinovsky Big Band", 1998; "Qiis. Nick Levinovsky & Friends", 2002, etc.). The orchestra of Nick Lewinsky took part in jazz festivals in Salt Lake City, its organizer often performs on the airwaves of American radio programs about jazz.

In the decade of the 1970s, a large-scale cultural event in the world of jazz took place: the tour of the big band of the University of Illinois (1968), the D. Ellington Orchestra (1971), the T. Jones M. Lewis Orchestra (1972), through the cities of the USSR. This long-awaited event made a strong impression on Russian musicians, but there were also critical reviews. Thus, N. Levinovsky noted that attending the concert of D. Ellington was not only "the first step to America" for him, where he later emigrated, but also a test of a feeling close to disappointment: "the sound of the orchestra did not carry the novelty that we, young Russian jazzmen, craved. These elderly black musicians didn't seem to be affected at all by the changes in jazz over the last 10-15 years. They performed the usual repertoire in the old-fashioned way, which they were tired of" [7, p. 130]. On the contrary, attending Ted Jones and Mel Louis concerts became a real holiday for the musician, a school of artistry and professionalism [7, p. 130].

The geography of jazz festivals is expanding, which are now held throughout the country with the support of the USSR Ministry of Culture (Moscow, Leningrad, Riga, Novosibirsk, Khabarovsk, Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Kuibyshev, Voronezh and other cities). 1971 was the time of the first Moscow festival of the Studio of the Art of Musical Improvisation at the Moskvorechye Palace of Culture. Festival events provided the listener with a rare opportunity to hear instrumental jazz programs without the usual inclusion of song numbers [15, p. 71]. Unlike American jazz festivals, which are a series of concerts at different stages of large cities, Russian festivals had a broader creative program: festival participants participated in numerous jam sessions, hotly discussed current problems of the artistic profession, as a result of new acquaintances created new performing groups.

The appearance of TV shows with jazz music on the first program of Central Television in the late 1980s played a fatal role with Russian jazzmen: the aura of taboo, which ensured a high level of popularity during the years of official approval of jazz in the Soviet cultural program system, disappeared [4, p. 71]. Jazz, like academic music, does not appeal to the masses. While jazz was semi-secret, the public willingly bought tickets, but now, having come to television, as N. Levinovsky noted, "we did not gain a new audience, we began to lose our audience" [7, p. 230]. During this period, the Allegro, Cadence, and Arsenal collectives finished their creative activity, which can be compared with the decline of American swing in the late 1940s.

Summing up the above, we note that the work of N. Y. Levinovsky in the 1970s and 1980s is characterized by the search for ways to develop Soviet jazz art, experiments on the interpenetration of elements of jazz and folklore stylistics into the musical fabric of the author's compositions. The polemic on the autoimage of Soviet jazz [14, p. 47] received one of the promising answers in Levinovsky's activity: jazz in the process of its historical development may have its own national branches. Rapprochement with national musical traditions contributes to the further development of jazz art, the expansion of the geography of its popularization and productive assimilation. Levinovsky's "Russian jazz", enriched with the techniques of rock music, became an original phenomenon of Soviet musical culture of the 1970s and 1980s, a factor in the further development of domestic jazz art.

References
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2.  Borisova, E.S. (2009). The communicative aspect of the perception of musical art. Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences.  4 (11), 94-97.
3.  Goldberg, B. (2006). Self-hypnosis: easy ways to get rid of your problems / Translated from the English by O. Belokopytova. Rostov n/A: Phoenix.
4.  Zajceva, M.L., Budagyan, R.R. (2017). Jazz and modern violin art. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art criticism. Questions of theory and practice. 12-4 (86), 71-75.
5.  Zajceva, M.L., Sushkova-Irina, Ya.I., Budanov, A.V. (2021). Sound drama: stylistic features and experience of presentation in Russian art of the beginning of the XXI century. Problems of music science / Music Scholarship. 3, 175–184. DOI: 10.33779/2587-6341.2021.3.175-184.
6.  Kozlov, A. S (2009). Jazz, rock and brass pipes. Moscow: Eksmo.
7.  Levinovskij, N. Ya. (2007). Hold the square, man! New York: Liberty Publishing House.
8.  Miloserdova, E. N. (2001). The specifics of the harmonic language of jazz music in the conditions of fret organization. Bulletin of the Tambov University. 3-3 (23), 138-145.
9.  Nabok, I. L. (1989). Rock music: aesthetics and ideology. Leningrad: Knowledge.
10.  Nazin, A. S. (2013). Features of artistic perception of jazz and rock music in the historical aspect. Society. Wednesday. Development. 3 (28), 150-153.
11.  Ovchinnikov, P.L. (2019). Features of the formation of the repertoire in the concert practice of pop performers. Colloquium-journal. 9-5 (33), 48-50.
12.  Ogorodova, A. V., Shebanova, E. I., Yagovdik, A. A. (2017). Jazz of the 1950s: new styles and trends. Historical, philosophical, political and legal sciences, cultural studies and art criticism. Questions of theory and practice. 5 (79). Retrieved from https:// cyberleninka.ru/article/n/dzhaz-1950-h-gg-novye-stili-i-tendentsii?ysclid=lib97l3kkx858348759
13.  Ogorodova, A. V., Shebanova, E. I., Yagovdik, A. A. (2017). Jazz of the 1960s. A revolutionary breakthrough of technology and thinking: from experiment to spirituality. Science, art, culture. 2 (14). Retrieved from https:// cyberleninka.ru/article/n/dzhaz-1960-h-gg-revolyutsionnyy-proryv-tehnologii-i-myshleniya-ot-eksperimenta-k-duhovnosti?ysclid=lib99nf5a1711538096
14.  Rezakov, Ya. O. (2021). Hetero-, autoimage of Russian literature in the prose of the third wave of emigration: traditions of J.D. Salinger in the works of V.P. Aksenov and S.D. Dovlatov : Dissertation of the Candidate of Philology : 10.01.01 Russian literature. Bryansk, Bryansk State University Named after Academician I.G. Petrovsky.
15.  Fejertag, V. B. (2010). The history of jazz performance in Russia. St. Petersburg: Scythia.
16.  Baker, D. (1980). The jazz style of John Coltrane: alto saxophone. New York: Shat-tinger international Music corp.
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First Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the article "Nikolai Levinovsky: jazz musician and composer" is the creative biography of Soviet and American jazzman, composer and pianist, musicologist, member of the Union of Composers of the USSR and the Jazz Federation of the USSR Nikolai Yakovlevich Levinovsky (born 1944). The author tried to place his biographical sketch in the socio-cultural context of late Soviet society. The key feature of the time (jazz ceases to be a forbidden art in the USSR) was noticed by the author, however, what is the novelty of this technique and how it helped in revealing the biography and creative credo of Nikolai Yakovlevich, it remains unclear. In particular, the author's appeal to the memorial concert "Jazz by Vasily Aksenov" in 2010 is not entirely clear, did N.Ya. Levinovsky play any special role in it? At the same time, the author bypassed the active festival activities of the outstanding jazzman: for example, participation in the international Igor Butman festival "Aquajaz" in 2011. It is important that the change in the position of Soviet jazz led to the possibility of individual, censored philharmonic artistic councils, musicians to actively perform not only in various republics of the USSR, but also abroad, where international personal ties of outstanding Soviet artists with the world jazz elite were strengthened. In this sense, Levinovsky's serious creative connections can be compared with the creative connections of other jazzmen. Meanwhile, even about the personal compositions of the Soviet-era Allegro ensemble and the projects of the Nick Levinowski New York Orchestra, the article provides far from complete information. Already in conclusion, the author raises the polemical issue of the autoimage of Soviet jazz, without the resolution of which in a certain direction, it is certainly difficult to note the importance of Levinovsky's "Russian Jazz". Perhaps if the author had initially designated this topic as problematic, it would be logical to deduce from it Nikolai Yakovlevich's significant contribution to the development of jazz in the late Soviet period. However, the polemical problem was not posed, and the biographical sketch, according to the reviewer, turned out to be very meager in terms of revealing the hardworking and multifaceted nature of N.Ya. Levinovsky. Thus, it has to be stated that the subject of the study (the biography of N.Ya. Levinovsky) is not fully disclosed, although the final conclusion logically follows from some of the arguments of the main part and can be considered justified. The methodology of the presented research is based on a historical and biographical narrative, although the episode with the emigration of N.Ya. Levinovsky violates the historical sequence of the presentation of biographical eventfulness. Methodologically, the author has two ways to improve the presented material. If we limit ourselves to the genre of a brief biographical essay, then devote the refinement to the crystallization of form and content. To present briefly but fully a creative biography of an outstanding personality is not an easy task in itself. To solve it, there is no need for unnecessary digressions that do not lead to the achievement of the purpose of the essay. The second option may be to problematize N.Ya. Levinovsky's contribution to the jazz movement of the late Soviet society. Then a research article may turn out, but it must contain a minimum of scientific and methodological apparatus, including a clear research program, formulation of a problematic issue and an attempt to resolve it. The relevance of the appeal to the creative fate and achievements of N.Ya. Levinovsky is due to the uniqueness of the contribution of the composer, pianist and musicologist of the late Soviet and post-Soviet times to the development of jazz. However, the author's promised assessment of one of the brightest representatives of the Moscow jazz school of the 1970s and 1980s, in the opinion of the reviewer, was expressed somewhat inconsistently. The scientific novelty of the result obtained by the author is not obvious. The author himself does not focus on it: the problem mentioned in the final conclusion does not occupy a central place in the article. And although the author's final assessment conclusion is credible, it could have been more convincingly justified. The musical and analytical episodes of the study are trustworthy, in which the author reveals individual elements of the composer's author's style: their origins and intonation and compositional features, and an evidence base for the final conclusion could be built on them. The style as a whole can be considered scientific, although some stylistic flaws need to be eliminated (for example: "comedy released at the Mosfilm studio", "forced jazz musicians to settle down", etc.). The structure of the article needs to be finalized, whichever of the options for its implementation the author chooses (see above). The bibliography fully reveals the problem area of the study; the descriptions of the literature in the list meet the requirements of the editorial board and GOST. The appeal to the opponents is correct and sufficient. The reviewed article is certainly of interest to the readership of the journal "PHILHARMONICA. International Music Journal. But a small revision can still enhance the quality of the publication.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The subject of the article "Russian jazz" by Nikolai Levinovsky in the context of the domestic jazz art of the 1970s and 1980s." - the work of a musician in the context of the domestic jazz art of the 1970s and 1980s." Here the author skillfully used a whole range of methods - comparative historical, analytical, etc., analyzing a wide range of sources. Let's add that the relevance of the article is greater than ever, as well as its practical benefits, as far as all modern performers are concerned, and the interest of researchers in his work will steadily grow. The article has an undoubted scientific novelty, which is especially commendable in the light of the already mentioned widespread interest in the composer's work. But, in our opinion, the article is more like a popular science review, rather than a truly scientific article, which is primarily due to its small volume. In our opinion, it could be supplemented with biographical information about the musician and examples of his works, as well as the context of Russian jazz art of the 1970s and 1980s. Also, in our opinion, conclusions are insufficient. The article has an introduction, the main part that introduces readers to the work of the musician, and a conclusion. Its positive aspects include the accessibility and popularity of the style of presentation, a capacious description of the work of Nikolai Levinovsky: "The style of N. Levinovsky's compositions is based on the interaction of techniques of American jazz performance and traditions of Russian folk singing. Analyzing the playing method of John Coltrane [16, p. 35], who became the "guiding star" of the N. Levinovsky quartet (in addition to him, V. Konovaltsev, V. Epaneshnikov, N. Nikolenko were part of it), the musician realizes the proximity of the innovations of modal (fret) jazz that arose in the 1960s, in which improvisation was not built on chord sequences, and on extended melodic constructions sustained on one foundation, at a certain stage of the scale Aeolian, Ionian, Lydian, Dorian, etc. All this seemed new, original, and created a feeling of meditative immersion in a prolonged ecstatic state [5, p. 178]. The stylistic relief of the composition was formed by a system of interpenetration of jazz music techniques and the harmony-intonation structures of national cultures [8, p. 138]. The openness of modal (fret) jazz techniques for synthesis with national traditions of musical thinking attracted N. Levinovsky and became a characteristic feature of his compositional style, defined by the musician himself as "Russian jazz" [7, p. 92]." The author gives an idea of the musician's style: "So, in the composition "Procession", the artistic image is based on a contrasting combination of the ostinate rhythm of drums and refined melodies of solo instruments (electric piano, trumpet and saxophone), structural clarity (variational form) here is adjacent to the freedom of improvisational sections of solo parts. The "Interlude" is free in form, has a wave structure of gradual dynamic increase and sharp decrease in sonority, is saturated with atonal sections, sonorous colors of clusters in the piano part. The popular "Song of Fading Flowers" is based on a specific timbre ensemble sound (the synthesizer is tuned to the timbre of the flute, it is complemented by a double bass and small percussion instruments). The composition is based on the variational principle of the development of thematic material, which helps to consolidate melodies in the listeners' memory and helps to understand the ways of their transformation [11, p. 50]. This principle of shaping attracted the composer when he was fascinated by the work of Chick Corea, who created the ensemble "Return to Forever" ("Return Forever"), who moved away from the avant-garde experiments obscure to the general public towards jazz-rock, exciting to the modern listener." The author also gives an idea of N. Levinovsky as an arranger: "Folklore, jazz and avant-garde techniques of academic music, methods of arrangement, drawn from the best samples of modern music, became elements of a kind of creative synthesis, which became the basis of N.Ya. Levinovsky's individual compositional style, artistic image. His talent as an arranger was in great demand in the performing environment (he made arrangements of many melodies by A. Babajanyan, his arrangements of popular melodies by American jazz composers were performed by the Melodiya ensemble, the L. Merabov orchestra, and became the basis for the success of the Allegro jazz ensemble)." At the same time, in our opinion, the author's conclusions are too superficial and insufficient: "Summing up the above, we note that the work of N. Y. Levinovsky in the 1970s and 1980s was characterized by the search for ways to develop Soviet jazz art, experiments on the interpenetration of elements of jazz and folklore stylistics into the musical fabric of the author's compositions. The polemic on the autoimage of Soviet jazz [14, p. 47] received one of the promising answers in Levinovsky's work: jazz in the process of its historical development may have its own national branches. Rapprochement with national musical traditions contributes to the further development of jazz art, the expansion of the geography of its popularization and productive assimilation. Levinovsky's "Russian jazz", enriched with the techniques of rock music, became an original phenomenon of Soviet musical culture in the 1970s and 1980s, a factor in the further development of Russian jazz art." The bibliography of this study is sufficient and versatile, includes many different sources on the topic, including foreign ones, and is made in accordance with GOST standards. The appeal to the opponents is presented to a wide extent, performed at a decent scientific level. It seems to us that this article has good scientific potential and, with some refinement, may be of undoubted interest to a diverse readership musicologists, musicians, students and teachers, as well as anyone interested in modern Russian musical culture.