Genesis: Historical researchReference:
Pro-Government Political Youth Associations in Russia: Modern History
Abstract: The object of scientific research is political youth associations associated with pro-government political parties of the Russian Federation during the specified period. The subject of scientific research is the activity of domestic political youth associations in the political, public, cultural and spiritual life of the Russian Federation in the modern period. The purpose of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the activities of political youth associations and determining their place in the socio-political life of the Russian Federation in the 1990s - at the beginning of the XXI century. General scientific and special historical research methods were used. Among the general scientific research methods, the method of formal logic, the method of analysis, the method of synthesis, and the statistical method were used. Among the special historical methods were used: historical-comparative, historical-typological, problem-chronological, structural-functional method, historical-genetic, method of expert assessments. The article reveals the main pages of the history of political youth associations in the modern conditions of rapid rotation of youth movements. Youth associations associated with pro-government political parties of the Russian Federation are considered. Various forms of their activity are revealed. The characteristic of the political activity of organizations having a close connection with political parties is given. The ideological foundations of these associations are described. The study concluded that the key feature of pro-government youth associations in Russia is the presence of a developed idea about the possibility of broad representation of youth in power. In their activities, youth party associations, as a rule, focus on methods that may be of interest to young people – youth camps, public contests, forums, discussion platforms, pickets, rallies. At the moment, the main pro-government youth force in the country is the All-Russian public Organization "Young Guard of United Russia".
Keywords:political association, Russia, young people, politics, party, event, congress, president, project, idea
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Introduction In February 1990, the article of the Constitution of the USSR on the leadership role of the CPSU was abolished, thus the monopoly of the CPSU on power was abolished in the Soviet Union.
In 1991, the USSR itself disintegrated. Russia is becoming an independent state.
From the very beginning of the modern history of Russia, its ruling circles have actively promoted the creation of non-governmental youth associations. A youth politicum was being built, which, like the "adult" political forces, was divided into pro-government and opposition.
Over time, young people and youth associations have accumulated political weight in the political process of Russia. At all times, youth associations have been an effective and significant political force influencing the authorities. Considering these aspects, this topic is relevant and of interest both in political and scientific circles. There is a need to study youth associations engaged in political activities and those organizations that belonged to or depended on leading political parties, since they were numerous and had a great influence on young people. Youth movements and associations were one of the main components of the socio-political development of Russia.
In addition, understanding the place and role of youth and youth associations in the socio-political life in the past makes it possible for a generation of young people in our time to realize whether they should join this type of associations existing today. Despite the considerable public interest in political youth associations, there is currently a lack of comprehensive research on their activities. The presented studies and works consider certain periods of post—Soviet development of Russia or certain aspects of the activities of these associations, and at the same time - mainly from a political science perspective.
ReviewThe youth movement was a favorite topic of Soviet historiography.
They paid great attention to the history of the Communist Youth Union, revealed the activities of the Komsomol on various aspects of youth education , analyzed specific measures to expand the youth Komsomol movement , to improve its work, developed a theory of youth policy , considered the links of the Komsomol with youth organizations of other countries  and others numerous questions.
Among the works dealing with the topic of youth associations in modern Russia, a solid number of dissertation studies can be distinguished. These are, for example, the works of Baal N.B. (Political extremism of Russian youth and technologies to overcome it: abstract of the dissertation. ... Doctor of Political Sciences: 23.00.02 / Natalia Borisovna Baal; [Place of defense: Nizhny Novgorod State University named after N.I. Lobachevsky]. - Nizhny Novgorod, 2012), D.G. Kamneva (Youth political movements in modern Russia: abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Political Sciences: 23.00.02 / Kamnev Dmitry Grigoryevich; [Place of protection: State University - Higher School of Economics]. - Moscow, 2009), Kolzhanova I.N. (Socio-political youth movements in modern Russia: mass, elites, leaders: abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Political Sciences: 23.00.02 / Sev.-Zap. Academy of Public Services. - Rostov-on-Don, 2006), Kostenko V.V. (Protest activity of youth public organizations: the experience of sociological research abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Sociological Sciences: 22.00.04 / Kostenko Valery Valeryevich; [Place of protection: Russian State University for the Humanities]. - Moscow, 2020), S.A. Mosolikova (Pro-presidential youth socio-political associations and their role in modern political life Of Russia: dissertation ... Candidate of Political Sciences : 23.00.02 / Mosolikov Sergey Alexandrovich; [Place of protection: Russian Academy of Sciences and State Services under the President of the Russian Federation]. - Moscow, 2017, O.A. Rodinoy (Youth Public associations in modern Russia: sociological analysis of effectiveness: abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Sociological Sciences: 22.00.04 / Ur. State University named after A.M. Gorky. - Yekaterinburg, 2006), Sokolova A.V. (Youth public organizations in the political space of modern Russia : strategies of state and civic youth policy : abstract of the dissertation of the Candidate of Political Sciences: 23.00.02 / Sokolov Alexander Valentinovich; [Place of defense: North Caucasus. academy of Public Services]. - Rostov-on-Don, 2011), etc.
However, the range of issues raised in them affects, at its core, a set of problems of a political nature. They analyze the experience of forming youth organizations, the types and functions of youth public organizations, technologies of youth policy, etc.
A separate category consists of articles dealing with various aspects of the activities of youth associations of political parties. For example, there are signs of youth socio-political organizations as actors of public policy. , their structural organization , the organizational and legal forms in which youth associations of political parties are created, the features of their legal status , the modern political space in Russia (including youth), the nature, functions and evaluation criteria of various parties and party systems , the origins the political reality of modern Russia , the genesis of political parties, social, political, legal, organizational and other aspects of their activities .
Another small group of studies consists of monographs. Modern Russian youth groups, political organizations and social movements have become the object of research in the works of G. A. Kaznacheeva , I. N. Kolzhanova , K. A. Kotova . These works are devoted to the peculiarities of political participation of youth, regional aspects, the attitude of state institutions of power to youth organizations . The authors focus on solving theoretical and methodological issues related to the conceptualization of political participation in organizations.
Thus, the literature developing this topic has long-standing roots in Russian historiography, different origins, belongs to different branches of science, which allows us to consider various aspects of the life of youth and youth associations. Dissertation research and political issues prevail. In general, studies concerning the Russian youth environment at the end of the XX century — at the beginning of the XXI century were conducted in various scientific directions. But to date, research in the historical context (concerning the genesis of political youth associations, the activities of pro-government political youth associations) is not enough to fully comprehend the essence and significance of these organizations in the life of the Russian Federation.
The main part The youth movement in the Russian Federation in the 1990s, like the whole country, was in a state of transformation.
After the liquidation of the CPSU monopoly on power in 1990 and the collapse of the USSR in 1991, a radical change in social and political life is taking place in Russia. A wide range of youth associations with different directions and tasks are being formed in the country, which take the most active and direct part in the life of the country and young people. Among the youth associations that were actively engaged in political activities, organizations that had close ties with political parties stood out. Youth associations could be created in the form of a public organization or a public movement, and Russian citizens who had reached the age of 14 could be members of them .
The mid- and second half of the 1990s became the most intensive in the creation of youth associations of political parties. Youth branches and organizations were created with almost every party fighting for the right to get into the State Duma of the Russian Federation. Regardless of the political orientation, all political parties needed new cadres who could provide replenishment of the party ranks in the near future . Pro-government youth organizations had an administrative resource of support from the authorities, which made this category of youth associations the most influential in comparison with the rest. Youth organizations are becoming an active participant in the political struggle.
Among the youth associations supporting the government in 1991-1999, it should be noted the Youth Union of the Democratic Party of Russia, the Youth Union of the Democratic Choice of Russia, the Youth Organization of the movement "Our Home is Russia", youth organizations of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. The ideological foundations of the organizations in question mostly corresponded to the center-right spectrum. During the confrontations with political opponents, pro-state youth organizations took an active part in marches, pickets, rallies, and actively campaigned in favor of their parties during election campaigns.
At the beginning of the XXI century, United Russia became one of the largest and most influential parties (from 1999 to 2001, the Unity Party). The party founded the All-Russian public organization "Young Guard of United Russia", the youth organization "Youth Unity".
"Youth Unity" was created on April 27, 2000. The movement took various social initiatives (charity concerts, collecting humanitarian aid, promoting the ideals of peace and harmony in the country, organizing construction teams Congress of Young Citizens of Russia under the motto "Russia needs me", etc.), held events in support of the current president of the country and his policies (rallies, concerts, actions "We are united!", "I know my anthem", "We should continue the story", "Strong Russia – Healthy Russia", "Live money or dead benefits?). In 2005 The "Youth Unity" was transformed into the "Young Guard of United Russia". The starting point for the organization was the event of the I Congress of the "Young Guard of United Russia", held on November 15-16 in Voronezh. On it, the Coordinating Council, consisting of federal district coordinators, was proclaimed the governing body of the Organization. The general principles of the organization were proclaimed — business, audacity, trust, duty.
On the eve of the 2007 election campaign, the leadership of the United Russia Party authorizes MHER to receive a 20% quota for young people on party lists. This was done in order to select the best representatives of young people for their subsequent nomination as candidates. The party launches the project "Political Factory". In 2006 alone, more than 2,000 people from 24 constituent entities of the Russian Federation took part in this program. As a result of the implementation of the "Political Factory" project, several dozen young Guards became deputies of different levels on the Party lists in the regions.
In the following years, the IHER defines a number of priority programs and projects, for example: "I am a citizen", "Factory of meanings", "Youth Parliamentarism", "Ecology", "Furious Construction squad", "My Story", etc. The single motto of the "Young Guard" is the call "Youth to power", enshrined in the Manifesto of the Organization.
2016 became eventful for the "Young Guard", in order to find the leaders of the youth environment, the Federal competition "Avangard-2016" was held. Following the results of the XV Congress of United Russia, held in the same year, a list of candidates for elections to the State Duma was formed. According to the election results, 55 people became candidates for the lower house of parliament, 4 of them became deputies of the State Duma.
In the same year, MHER initiated the creation of the Federal Youth Election Headquarters, which united in its structure eight of the largest youth organizations in Russia: NGO "Young Guard of United Russia", LLC "Russian Union of Youth", Youth Parliament of the Russian Federation, NGO "Russian Student groups", NGO "Russian Union of Rural Youth", NGO "Young Deputies", LLC "Russian Union of Rescuers", Chamber of Young Legislators. The main goals were proclaimed: to unite the work of the largest youth public organizations in Russia to increase the interest of the younger generation in elections; control over the transparency of elections; participation of young people in elections as candidates and observers.
The main political content of 2022 is the election of deputies of the State Duma, the ZS, and the OMSU. According to the results of a Single day of voting, 149 Young Guard candidates won elections at various levels. The number of Young Guards in the Duma of the VIII convocation has increased and amounted to 15 people.
MHER annually conducts a large number of significant events, implements various projects. For example: "Heroes of our time", "Campus", "I am for fair elections", "Take a step into politics!", "Accessible environment", "I am a volunteer", "School of Political Leadership and others.
Among modern youth associations, it is necessary to mention All-Russian public organizations that promote the education of young people.
The youth organization "Going Together" was established on May 28, 2000 in Moscow, the organization proclaimed its motto - Be better! The organization announced the number of about 100,000 people throughout Russia. Of which 80% are representatives of the student body.
In 2005, a new youth association replaced "Going Together". On April 15, 2005, the founding congress of the political youth anti—fascist movement "Nashi" was held. This youth department was created at the initiative of the Presidential administration. From that moment on, the functions of the main youth force in the country were performed by "Ours". The active work of the organization and achievements in youth policy have made the organization "Nashi" the largest and most influential among youth associations in Russia. In 2008, the organization had about 150 thousand members and 50 regional offices. The program document was the Manifesto of the organization, which proclaimed the main goal of the movement — ensuring global leadership of Russia in the XXI century. The achievement of this goal was correlated with the solution of three main rather multifaceted global and liberal tasks of national development: the preservation of the sovereignty of the country; the modernization of Russia; the creation of an active civil society. The main projects of the organization were programs and directions — "Dream and think independently", "Modernize yourself", "Political educational program", "Our Victory", "President's Messenger", annual camps on Seliger, etc. In 201-2, the leader of "Our" announced his idea to create a parallel political party. The movement was divided into independent public projects, for example, "Our Army", "Voluntary Youth Squad", "Friendship Lessons" and others.
Conclusions The active development of political youth associations in the late XX – early XXI centuries was due to several factors.
The first is the youth itself. The natural need of young people to unite in groups for self-realization, as well as protection of their rights and interests. The second factor is political parties. At the end of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries, there was a change of the establishment in the country. Every political force was interested in creating a powerful youth resource to solve their problems. Both pro-government and opposition forces were engaged in the problem of creating their own youth associations.
Pro-government youth associations are a source of personnel for the parties. They have extensive opportunities, thanks to the assistance of the authorities. A key feature of pro–government youth associations in Russia is the presence of a developed idea about the possibility of a broad representation of youth in power, as well as the opportunity to be active in various spheres - political, social, spiritual. In their activities, youth party associations, as a rule, focus on methods that may be of interest to young people – youth camps, public contests, forums, discussion platforms, pickets, rallies. However, the Internet space has not yet become an alternative to classical methods of agitation. At the moment, the main pro-government youth force in the country is the All-Russian public Organization "Young Guard of United Russia".