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National Security
Reference:

On the question of choosing the organizational form of the digital space for the safe development of Russian business

Moreva Evgeniya L'vovna

ORCID: 0000-0001-6355-7808

PhD in Economics

Deputy Director of the Institute for Financial and Industrial Policy, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125167, Russia, Moscow, Leningradsky Prospekt, 49

elmoreva@fa.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Obolenskaya Lyudmila Vladislavna

ORCID: 0000-0002-1016-9171

PhD in Technical Science

Leading Researcher, Institute for Financial and Industrial Policy, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125167, Russia, Moscow, Moscow, Leningradsky Prospekt, 49

lvobolenskaya@fa.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Bekulova Suzanna Robertinovna

ORCID: 0000-0003-1384-4694

Junior Scientific Associate, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation

125993, Russia, Moscow, Leningradskii Prospekt, 49

suzi.94@mail.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0668.2022.5.39048

EDN:

GUKLAB

Received:

27-10-2022


Published:

06-11-2022


Abstract: In the context of the global trend of digital transformation of industry, the formation of digital spaces is one of the important tasks of business and national economies. The diversity of forms of digital spaces in modern industry has led to the need for their theoretical ordering, structuring and classification in order to create conditions for the most correct choice of the form of its implementation in practice. The purpose of this work is to solve the problem of choosing the optimal form of organizing the digital space to increase the security of business development and the national economy. The object of the study is the process of digital transformation of the modern economy and industry. The subject of the study is the forms of organization of digital spaces in modern industry. The analysis of the forms of organization of digital spaces indicates their diversity and complexity. It is shown how the organization of a digital space suitable for business increases the efficiency of its functioning. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the consequences of the transition to a digital business model. It is established that the choice of the form of organization of the digital space returns to the peculiarities of business functioning. One of the main criteria for choosing the form of organization of the digital space is how the business operates: independently or within the value chain. It is shown that one of the consequences of the trend of progressive growth of digital data flows between different subjects of different levels is the emergence and aggravation of imbalances in their digital spaces. In these conditions, the participation of the state is necessary to ensure the security of business development and the national economy.


Keywords:

digital space, digital technologies, industry, digital factory, digital data, integrated digital system, artificial intelligence, digital platform, digital business model, digital integration

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

IntroductionOne of the trends of the development strategy of the Russian Federation in the XXI century was the development of the high-tech sector of the economy and the introduction of high technologies in ensuring national security.

This trend is due to the need to provide the national economy with goods, services, and technologies that correspond to the priority areas of economic and scientific and technological development of the world economy.

The lack of technological development in the context of the active development of digital technologies in the world is associated with the risks of loss of national sovereignty. In this regard, the state provides a system of measures to support the development of digital technologies. The national program "Digital Economy of the Russian Federation" for the period up to 2024 has become the main tool for implementing the tasks set in this direction by the President of the Russian Federation.[1][2] By decree of the President of the Russian Federation, digital transformation is included in the national development goals until 2030.[3]

The global trend of digital transformation of the economy and its branches is reflected in the industrial sector of the economy. The fourth industrial revolution and the transition to the sixth technological order are associated with the active introduction of digital technologies in industry and related sectors of the economy. The consequence of these processes is the natural complication of the digital technologies used and the emergence of new, higherlevel ones, such as digital platforms that allow to streamline and improve the efficiency of using digital technologies.

The purpose of this work is to solve the problem of choosing the optimal form of organizing the digital space to increase the security of business development and the national economy. The object of the study is the process of digital transformation of the modern economy and industry. The subject of the study is the forms of organization of digital spaces in modern industry. The methodological basis of the research is system analysis, comparative analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction methods.

Digital spaces as a tool for increasing production efficiencyEducation in the industrial sector of digital spaces (CP) is based on the large-scale development of digital technologies (CT) by its enterprises and work with the data obtained with their help (digital data, CD).

The search and mastery of ways to use them are accompanied by the emergence of various forms of CPU organization. With some degree of conditionality, they can be distributed in order from (relatively) simple to more complex.

The first ones relate to the level of a separate enterprise, where, together with the introduction of CT, economic entities are looking for and creating organizational forms in which they receive and use data from different sites / stages of production, aggregate them for the entire enterprise / firm and use them profitably.

At the R&D stage, such forms are formed mainly with the use of 3D printing, robots, AR/VR technologies and AI, which allows us to obtain data to reduce the development time and test hypotheses, simplify these processes, reduce various kinds of errors and uncertainty, better link the results of work with the launch of prototypes in production (the latter especially relevant for high-tech industrial sectors).

At the supply stage, especially at large manufacturing plants, the productive use of blockchain, DLT, 3D and some other technologies ensures the optimization of order placement and the formation of reliable logistics schemes, operational control over their implementation. The use of these technologies also helps to strengthen the relations of companies with suppliers (for example, by providing them with 3D files on the customer's websites for downloading and molding the necessary products); allows consumers to be aware of the progress of deliveries, thereby involving them in the production process.

At the stage of actual production, the determination of adequate ways to use the Internet of Things (IoT), predictive analytics and additive technologies allows you to receive data online to control the manufacture of the product, minimize imbalances in the operation of the equipment involved, optimize its loading, fleet composition, etc.

To improve production and assembly, to take into account the imperatives of customization of products, especially in consumer electronics and light industry, the appeal to 3D printing allows. The data obtained with its help is associated with the possibilities of simplifying the creation of new materials and materials with new properties. Competent handling of industrial robots / cobots at this stage allows them to collect production information and work with it in such a way as to significantly increase production efficiency during modular assembly, adapt to the general trends of customization and increase the price of labor.

These trends can also be offset to some extent by the use of AI and AR/VR technologies that use data to expand the abilities of the employee, his better integration into the production process. Thanks to special clothing and other devices created using CT, the subject has the opportunity to expand the visual and other abilities important for production.

At the stage of warehousing, the use of robots, the adequate use of data from AI and AI makes it easier to manage orders, packaging and palletizing processes, simplifies the measurement and control of the condition of goods.

Correct access to the production and processing of data using IB and blockchain/ DLT technologies can seriously improve transportation and supply chain management, link them with other operations, monitor them in real time, simplify accounting, thereby increasing the efficiency and environmental friendliness of such work.

The search and determination of suitable forms of using machine learning, computer vision, blockchain and other digital technologies opens up ways to improve the quality of production with the help of the obtained data (identification of previously unnoticeable product defects and their elimination), the prompt response of the organization to claims and/or their prevention, contributes to the formation of increased standards of industrial activity.

The effective implementation of all these capabilities by an enterprise requires, first of all, coordination and integration of data flows that create a data center at different sites and which serve as the basis for the formation of its CPU. Special software helps to do this, which brings together information from different production sites into a complete system. According to experts, only in the manufacturing industry, thanks to this, the growth rate of production efficiency can be increased more than 7 times compared to the rates calculated since the 90s of the twentieth century.[4]

Among the promising solutions to this problem is the formation of various kinds of digital factories (hereinafter, CF), including their "smart", "fully intelligent", "intelligent", virtual, "future", "future" and other varieties with the use of knowledge acquired earlier or created together with them[5] [1]. CF presuppose complete robotization/automation of production based on the integration of data centers (Internet of Things, Big Data and others) with information management systems (MES, ICS, ERP, EAS, etc.) and ensuring coordinated data center flows in real time in different changing conditions.[6][7] Thanks to this, organizations are able to receive many different benefits: if necessary, personalize their products or, conversely, give them a universal character, adapt them to the specific requirements of different sectors and spheres, thereby contributing to increased competitiveness and obtaining other advantages over others.

Today, many countries of the world have begun to create such structures.

In the commercial sector, this is usually done on the basis of the largest TNCs: Agusta Westland (England, Italy, helicopter industry), Siemens (Germany, electronics), etc. Among those who started laying the foundations for the creation of such factories are the largest domestic companies. Thus, the world leader in the production of palladium and nickel, Norilsk Nickel, has developed an integrated corporate governance system based on SAP ERP, which is now being replicated at the enterprises of its branches, including the largest in the group, Polar.

CF is often initiated or actively supported by states and supranational structures. In the EU, for example, it is provided by the programs "Factories of the Future", "Horizon Europe", etc. In Russia, CF creation projects are included in the Technet roadmapwithin the framework of the National Technology Initiative, they are being developed under the supervision of the Center for Computer Engineering (IPT) of SPbPU, etc.

Such tempting prospects for creating a CF, however, are not always implemented smoothly. In organizations, data center flows often remain limited and fragmented. According to consulting agencies, up to 100 different software systems of different ages and not always well compatible with each other are used simultaneously at different production sites of large enterprises today.

In addition to purely technical problems with information flows, the creation of a CF is often hindered by general economic conditions and economic and political attitudes of external stakeholders. In the first case, the low cost of labor, the limited possibilities of its preparation for working with numbers, etc. can play a great role. In the second, there are specific priorities of industrial policy aimed at ensuring employment, overcoming various kinds of structural constraints, etc. Calculations of critical parameter values for solving such dilemmas, for example, the attractiveness of industrial production robotics Vs the intensity and price of simple "routine" labor, have been repeatedly carried out in modern research.

In addition to the limitations that arise at the macro- and meso-levels, an important obstacle to CD flows is their weak provision with intra-company institutions, fraught with fragmentation of the forms of CP formed at the same time and a decrease in their economic effects.

Digital transformation of business models in industryOne of the most important structures of this kind is the business model (BM) of an organization, which determines the way it creates, moves and retains value [2-3].

The adaptation of the BM to the digit (in the framework of this study, the term digit denotes the Central Bank and the Central Bank) and the creation of a digital BM allows the organization to effectively use the Central Bank, to form its balanced CPU.

To date, many aspects of such processes remain, however, not fully developed. The most common approaches are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Typology of approaches to digital transformation of BM

Aspect

Parameter

Types of transformation

Subject of change

coverage of the structural composition of the organization

limited to individual divisions of the organization cover the entire organization

tsr

complexity

based on the implementation of separate CT complexes / CT systems all CT of the company and its environment

novelty

based on the introduction of new CT any CT

the nature of the impact on BM

based on CT with the possibilities of radical transformations of BM - with the possibilities of any changes of BM

Methods of transformation

number of functional spheres

one functional area is changing all key areas

scope of coverage

only the internal relations of the organization change internal and external relations of the organization partial changes of both

the direction of the impact

changes with feedbacks - without feedbacks

objects affected by transformations

analog, physical objects are changing, - analog and digital objects

Effects

indicators of effects

quantitative - qualitative - quantitative and qualitative

functional area

financial (change in revenue/income) non-financial - design, creation and fixing of new business value

scale

local (areas of the firm's activity) - the entire firm the firm and its partners - value chain - ecosystem, etc.

Source: compiled by the authors.

These differences in the interpretations of the digital transformation of BM are accompanied by differences in the estimates resulting from digital BM. Their characteristic features include their digital conditionality; innovative nature; digital channels of intra-company communication; digital environment and means of production served by BM, etc. [4-6].

The variety of these parameters and their combinations in different authors determines a large number of different forms/ types of BM:

- e-commerce (Severstal Group of companies, NLMK became the first among Russian metallurgical companies to integrate online stores into their management electronic system);

- different types of Internet rentals ("BM on demand", "BM shared use", etc.);

- "platform BM" (serving platform-type productions);

- "free" BM (with free provision of basic services and income from advertising and special options not related to the standard set of services);

- BM "open source" (when a product, for example, software, is provided free of charge and gives the opportunity to modify it, improve and use both the user and the seller), etc.

The above list is not complete and is regularly updated with all new types of digital BM. Despite the continuing discrepancies in their content, the relevance of such searches is increasingly reinforced by the development of data centers and configurations of data center flows, which open up prospects for the emergence of new and more efficient forms of CPU organization.

Among the important consequences of the transition to digital BM and overcoming the fragmentation of the CP of enterprises are changes in their relations with the external environment: the spread of outsourcing, various kinds of off-, re- and research-shoring, the development of value chains, etc., increasingly acquiring the format of network interaction based on numbers [7]. It lays the prerequisites for further complicating the forms of CPU organization and supplementing their CPUs at the inter-company level.

Distinguishing in the scale and spheres of use the figures in the value chains that are formed at the same time, the benefits from this, the participants are given the basis for identifying the following types of chains in a number of studies: "synthesis", "digital platforms" and "integrated digital systems".

In the case of "syntegration", the scale of the use of CD is limited and they themselves perform a supporting role in the interaction of partners. The figure is used for fairly simple operations: transmitting recommendations on basic production parameters, making simple decisions on quality control and efficiency of individual production sites, etc. Today, such chains are common in the light and food industries during subcontract operations with suppliers from countries with cheap labor.

"Syntegration", thus, does not imply the creation of any significant CPU of enterprises, but only lays down the possibility of its appearance with more complex methods of inter-firm interaction and large-scale use of numbers.

In part, they are implemented on a "digital platform" (hereinafter, the platform). Within the framework of the concept under consideration, the platform, as well as the "synthesis", is associated with the flows of the CD in the implementation of intermediate and final products. At the same time, the functionality of the platform and the directions of its use are wider than in the first case. With the help of numbers, they transmit important commercial information on transactions, participants coordinate their positions at electronic auctions and other trading platforms. This allows its participants to receive the following benefits:

- save on marketing, communication and commission costs;

- it is easier to enter markets, usually larger, with more stable prices and increased growth rates;

- facilitate acquaintance with each other, establish trust among themselves and cooperate for specific operations (foreign trade, etc.);

- improve and specialize production, develop managerial abilities and skills, optimize business and increase the efficiency of the entire chain.

At the same time, such platforms do not always provide the proper quality and volume of data centers, contain specific risks:

- The software of the platforms is not always well-debugged, which causes failures in quality control of products sold through them, errors in the data center about the reliability of partners and other obstacles to saving users on costs;

- the content of platforms often ignores the features of institutions and technical standards adopted by different firms, markets, sectors, etc.;

- working conditions with CT platforms impose rather high requirements on the level of training of users, the availability of special equipment and / or software, implies their purchase from platforms, which not everyone can afford;

- often, working on platforms requires the adaptation of the participants' BM to them, which conflicts with their policies, does not correspond to the available resources and accepted business standards.

The CPU that is formed in this case turns out to be incomplete, allows for a different degree of use of the data center by its participants. At the same time, as in the case of "syntegration", platforms enable participants to use the digit better, create more balanced data flows and improve the forms of the organized CPU.

Such prospects are implied, for example, by the 4.0 RU project initiated several years ago by the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation as part of efforts to create a single digital space for domestic industry. The project was based on complex software systems that allow an industry customer to use its data on the production resources of enterprises of interest to him in real time and, taking this into account, choose partners among them. According to its developers, the project's prospects were ensured not only by its software, but also by the requirements of a suitable external and internal infrastructure, first of all, BM. The head of the project developers A. Suvorov noted: "A cardinal breakthrough in terms of changing the industrial model requires significant infrastructural and institutional changes, adaptation ... regulation and standardization, ... movement towards piloting and ... the development of platform services is, of course, a movement towards digital business models" [8].

Digital platform as the embodiment of an advanced form of digital space organization

The "integrated digital system" (ICS) contains a clearer imperative to replace these platform variants of the organization of the CPU with more advanced ones. In it, the figure mediates all the main business operations - they are provided with complex software and the infrastructure necessary for it. ICS allows you to control the movement of a product along the entire chain, manage its financial, marketing and other functional information. The CPU created in this way makes it possible to improve the operational and strategic management of the value chain and its individual links, save their costs, increase revenues and efficiency

Embodying a developed form of organization of an inter-company CPU, the ICS is in many ways similar to the one that in practice and theory is often referred to by the term digital platform (CPl). The large-scale and well-coordinated work with the figure, characteristic of all its links, allows analysts to single out a new type of value chain among the typical features of the CPl, based on the CD. (See Figure 1)

Figure 1. The main stages of the data-based value chain

Source: Digital Economy Report 2021.[8]

With the appearance of such quality, CPl is associated with their outstanding economic and financial results. These include, in particular, the growth of capitalization of many of them, especially large ones, which does not stop even during a pandemic crisis. (See Figure 2).

Figure 2. Market capitalization of the largest CPl in the USA and China (USD billion)

Source: Digital Economy Report 2021.[9]

As in the case of digital BM, the agreement of many analysts in assessing CPl as the embodiment of an advanced form of CP organization at the level of inter-firm interaction is accompanied by differences in the definition of its varieties. Analyzing the CPl of different areas and spheres, some researchers distinguish operational, investment, innovative and integrated platforms [9]. Others supplement them by dividing them into those intended for work in technical, social, functional and other spheres. CPl is also distinguished by the scope of coverage of national and international space; management strategies; paid or not nature of services, instrumental content, as well as other features and their combinations. According to the value of individual elements, figures for working on CPl are sometimes distinguished by applied, infrastructural and instrumental types of CPl, as well as providing a digital environment and/or infrastructure for software development, user management based on their data, open, online and other platforms.

Digital space management: features and trendsThe emergence and large-scale spread of digital networks has put issues of their management on the agenda.

The solution of the tasks of ensuring their well-coordinated activity and effective work with the figure in the specialized literature is associated with a set of conditions, including:

- the network organizers have a clear understanding of the appropriate forms of digital BM, their abilities and capabilities to plan and implement scenarios for its creation;

- selection of the network members with the necessary role-based functionality;

- their focus on optimizing operational interaction and creating digital BM at home to strengthen their position in the market;

- coordination of their goal-setting and motivation [10].

Qualifying purposeful provision of this in terms of network management, analysts recognize the preservation of a number of important unresolved issues in relation to it:

- about the possibilities of using the network to increase the innovative activity of its participants, control their actions in optimizing the competitive environment, industry structure, the formation of scientific and technological clusters, environmental protection;

- about the specifics of assessing the potential of the network by its participants, the legitimacy of its interpretation by them as a means of their strategic development;

- about the peculiarities of the production of knowledge in the network from its data center, the necessary abilities and skills for this;

- and some others [11].

The solution of these problems has become particularly relevant in relation to the CPl. In search of this, researchers rely on the ideas of the founders and classics of the theories of network organization, such as, for example, G. Moore, R. Metcalf, A. Barabasi, develop their concepts on this basis - hub economies, ecosystems, etc.

In the first case, the authors focus on the nodes of the networks, which are presented in the form of fragments of the CPl; note their disparity for the reproduction of the entire platform and its stakeholders, the acquisition by some nodes of quality critical for all participants. Ownership and control over such "bottlenecks" makes it possible to turn the CPl into a powerful super-monopoly structure - a digital hub. The increasing returns characteristic of it, as of any network production based on numbers, strengthens the tendency of the hub to displace traditional organizations with decreasing returns. The threats of their complete elimination, the differentiation of production and labor depending on the involvement in hubs and the risks of socio-economic shocks on this basis require, according to the researchers, regulatory impact on the CPl and the improvement of their culture.

The subject of such influence is called, first of all, the state. It is called:

- control the competition of platforms and other networks;

- to support the cybersecurity of the economy and society, the preservation of traditional industries, identifying areas prohibited for hubs;

- to stimulate the creation of alternative hubs and competing structures with them, including by providing open access to key data center systems (operational, web services, etc.) for everyone [12].

Many of these areas are being implemented in government practices today. However, they are not limited to a priority focus on CPl, they are also aimed at supporting the further development of digital and improving CP in industry, the economy and society as a whole. In this capacity, States carry out the following actions:

- develop and improve the necessary institutional and other infrastructure for the development of digital by all economic entities;

- purposefully support the development of digital by traditional and newly formed organizations that are not related to the platform type (small and medium-sized businesses, households, start-ups, etc.)

These measures, however, do not receive in the theory of hubs a clear justification of sufficiency for effectively opposing the latter and changing their culture. This also makes it difficult to assess the results of the practical implementation of the proposed recommendations.

The concept of a digital ecosystem helps to move forward in the search for a solution to the problem. Recognizing the possibility of the environment's impact on the qualitative change of the subject, she points out the direction for creating an effective alternative to hubs: managing the environment to achieve a qualitatively new, manageable state (designed ecosystem); coordinating the efforts of the state and other stakeholders to purposefully create such an environment; nominating the figure of the "director of the ecosystem" (ecosystem orchestrator) and others necessary for this actions, thanks to which new forms of CPU organization may appear, are at the ecosystem level.[10]

However, more detailed justification and development of the state policy that ensures this are still waiting to be implemented.

An analysis of government efforts to manage CD flows in different countries shows that significant differences remain between them. Among their most important aspects today are the following (see table 2):

Table 2

Directions of state policy in relation to the Central Bank

Country Characteristics

China

eu

USA

National security

Large-scale access to and control of data centers

In the field of national. responsibilities, risks of regulation in the management of supranational structures

Priority direction of state policy

Protection of personal data and private information

The rules are business-oriented

General Regulation on the Protection of Personal Data on the basis of fundamental Human Rights

Is not a priority area; the subject of discussion in the absence of legislative acts of the federal level

Competition policy

Fuzzy, preferential support of the national. and state-owned companies

The approach to the Central Bank as an important issue for competition

The data are not considered to be the object of competition, although they are taken into account at court hearings and in antimonopoly studies

Economic growth and development based on numbers

Powerful state interventions

In the field of regulatory impact to overcome the consequences of the pandemic and support the development of the digital economy

Mainly in the perspective of market orientation

Source: compiled by the authors of Digital Economy Report 2021.[11]

The analysis of Table 2 shows that the applied approaches to grouping the main directions of state policy in the field of CD management lay the foundations for their further research. From the perspective of the issues posed in the theory of hub economics, the development and application of ecosystem tools for studying the impact of the state on the environment in order to qualitatively transform hubs, develop traditional industries, change the structure of sectors, spheres and the entire economy are of particular importance. From the point of view of the continuity of approaches to the study of numbers as an economic asset, issues that have not been resolved in other concepts become important areas: determination of qualitative and quantitative parameters of the data center and work with them by subjects of different aggregate levels (individual industrial enterprise / firm / industrial sector, the entire industrial sphere, etc.); ensuring comparability of the results of their application to different subjects of the same aggregate level and finding out the patterns of their transformation to other levels; analysis of the effectiveness of interaction of digital stakeholders in different types of environments and others . In the aspect of education and management of the development of the CPU by the state and other stakeholders, the actual problems are also the determination of the sufficiency of the parameters allocated today for managing the flows of the CPU to assess its effectiveness, identification of its tools (measures for the development of ecosystems, infrastructures, etc.), the specifics of its application in different conditions, assessment of the possibilities of accessing it by the state and other stakeholders (in particular including for the effective implementation of the import substitution policy, which is especially important for modern Russia).

The need to address these and related issues is confirmed and reinforced by the imbalances of CD flows that are being established today and are increasing over time.

Figure 3. Changing the bandwidth of interregional data transmission channels

Source: Digital Economy Report 2021.[12]

Table 3

Actual and expected annual growth rates of CD flows in the world

Types of CD transmission channels

2021-2020

2027-2021

Mobile communication

45%

56%

Stationary communication

29%

25%

Source: calculated by the authors of the Ericsson Mobility Report.[13]

The data in Figure 3 and Table 3 show that with an overall increase in the growth rate of CD flows worldwide and a further strengthening of this trend, the capacities of equipment intended for this purpose vary significantly in different regions of the world and in the medium term such differences will increase. This threatens to significantly limit the scope of work with the figure in a number of national economies and worsen the situation in them due to the weakness of work with a promising asset.

According to experts, such trends are characteristic of all components of the global socio-economic space, including the industrial sector[14] [13]. This, in turn, exacerbates the problems of finding effective forms of development of its CPU not only in individual countries, but also in the world as a whole.

Thus, another set of problems comes on the agenda - the analysis of the forms of organization of CP that are taking shape in modern industry at the international/global level; the identification of opportunities for managing their development, the development of an appropriate / their course/s and its/their implementation.

Separate attempts of this kind are already being made by some international and regional organizations. The UN, OECD, G20, WTO, APEC, ASEAN and other structures raise questions about the regulation of electronic commerce; ensuring the protection of personal and commercial information in the flows of data centers between countries, the need to adjust the taxation of transactions with the number of multinational companies, etc.[15][16][17][18]

At the same time, to date, such efforts remain partial and unsystematic, and do not allow us to associate with them the expectations of significant progress in overcoming the identified imbalances. The analysis of the forms of CPU organization that arise at the international level, the possibilities of effective management of them to reduce or eliminate discrepancies and the development of appropriate actions contribute to the emergence of a new direction of theoretical research and practical actions to search for effective forms of CPU organization on a global scale.

ConclusionCurrently, digital technologies play one of the defining roles in ensuring the competitiveness of countries, economic unions and corporations.

The digital transformation of industry as a driver of socio-economic development provides opportunities to increase the efficiency of its functioning. In the context of the active spread of the practice of forming digital spaces, Russia's lagging behind the leading trends may pose a threat to its economic security.

The choice of the form of organization of the digital space returns to the specifics of the functioning of the business. Depending on whether a business operates independently or within the value chain, it chooses one or another form of digital space. When a business enters the value chain, it faces the question of choosing the most appropriate form of organizing the digital space, taking into account the specifics of its activities.

The analysis of the forms of organization of digital spaces indicates their diversity and complexity. Together with the CPU, they are formed at different aggregate levels and represent different configurations of the data center, data center, external and internal infrastructures of subjects, primarily in the form of business models of industrial enterprises and organizations, as well as their environment.

One of the important characteristics of these forms relates to the coherence of the flows of the Central Bank of an economic entity, which sets the initial basis for the formation of diverse states of its central bank, ranging from undeveloped, fragmented to balanced, providing it with the integrity of space and the resulting advantages over others in economic development.

The modern theoretical tools for studying the CPU to date do not quite allow us to accurately assess the qualitative and quantitative parameters of the CPU flows. Its development and development is influenced by different scientific directions and concepts. A promising approach to conducting further scientific research is the concept of a digital ecosystem. Developing the ideas underlying it, it is possible not only to assess the prospects and consequences of the functioning of the CP of industrial entities of different types and levels, but also to develop an effective system of measures to manage it.

The relevance of such actions is confirmed by the trends observed today in economic life of the progressive growth of CD flows between different subjects of different levels while maintaining and aggravating the imbalances of their CP.

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The subject of the study. The article, based on the formulated title, should be devoted to the choice of the organizational form of the digital space for the safe development of Russian business. The article partially corresponds to the topic, since the Russian specifics of the issue under consideration are practically not given in the text of the article. Research methodology. The research is based on the use of traditional scientific methods: first of all, analysis and synthesis. At the same time, the drawings given in the text are not the result of the author's scientific work, but are copied from other sources. It seems that in order to publish an article in a journal of this level, the drawings must be built by the author himself. The relevance of the study is beyond doubt, which is determined, firstly, by the active digitalization of all socio-economic processes, and, secondly, by the need to modernize the activities of economic entities in conditions of increasing individual costs, the reduction of which is possible through the use of digital tools. Scientific novelty. Some elements of scientific novelty are contained in the text, but it is necessary to identify them more clearly, including pointing out the increase in scientific knowledge compared with the results of research obtained by other authors. The table "directions of state policy in relation to digital data" is quite interesting. It is recommended to clarify its content: firstly, the above characteristics are not the characteristics of the country, but the features of the policy, and secondly, the EU is not a country, but an association of countries (in this case, firstly, an editorial edit is required, and secondly: how much is the policy regarding governance is digital data uniform in the EU countries? Why are the member countries of the Eurasian Economic Union not considered by the author? Style, structure, content. The style of presentation is generally scientific. Spelling and punctuation errors partially reduce the impression of familiarization with the text. The structure of the article is structured quite clearly by the author: in particular, there is an introduction, followed by a description of digital spaces as a tool for improving production efficiency, a description of the digital transformation of business models in industry, the features and trends of digital space management, and a conclusion. At the same time, in the content of the article, the author does not identify the problems existing in the Russian Federation on the topic under consideration, nor does he formulate ways to solve them, including taking into account the cited foreign experience. At the same time, the scientific and practical community is primarily interested in specific measures that make it possible to choose the organizational form of the digital space for the safe development of Russian business. Bibliography. The author provides a bibliographic list consisting of 13 sources, of which 5 are domestic, and the rest are foreign. It is recommended not to reduce the number of foreign sources, but to expand the number of Russian scientific publications under consideration. Appeal to opponents. Despite the presence of scientific publications in the list of references, their content has not been considered by the author in the context of comparison with the results obtained. When finalizing the article, taking into account other comments, it is recommended to eliminate this problem, as this will further substantiate the scientific novelty of the study. Conclusions, the interest of the readership. Taking into account all the above, the article has been prepared at a good level.