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Philology: scientific researches

The existential paradigm of F. Tyutchev's creativity in the context of philosophical and aesthetic research of the first half of the XIX century

Mysovskikh Lev Olegovich

ORCID: 0000-0003-0731-1998

Postgraduate Student, Philological Faculty, Department of Russian and Foreign Literature, Ural Federal University named after the First President of Russia B. N. Yeltsin

620083, Russia, Sverdlovsk region, Yekaterinburg, Lenin str., 51, office 336

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Abstract: The article examines the work of F. Tyutchev in the light of aesthetic phenomena of Russian literature of the XIX century. A comparison of the works of Tyutchev and lyubomudrov is made. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the generation of creators to which Tyutchev and Lyubomudry belonged has developed a kind of type of Russian philosophy, whose specificity consists in the fact that it is expressed through art, and primarily through literature. Tyutchev's poetry reveals a number of unique existential-philosophical concepts: the prerequisites of the borderline situation described in the existential theories of K. Jaspers in the twentieth century, as well as analogies with reflections on the death of the founder of the religious trend of existentialism S. Kierkegaard. The author of the article concludes that Russian philosophical thought tends to be expressed through the language of art, in particular, the language of poetry. Tyutchev and the Moscow idealists create a new type of hero thinker. He is faced with such existential problems as the place of man in the universe, the meaning of human life, understanding of the psyche and human feelings. He asks questions about the higher powers that rule the world. He faces "damned problems" that will worry Russian writers of the second half of the XIX century. It was poetic thought that contributed to the development of such a great psychologism in the second half of the XIX century.


russian literature, theory of literature, fiction, existentialism, philosophy, poetry, art, Tyutchev, lyubomudry, aesthetics

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IntroductionThe subject of reflection in this article is the poetic heritage of F. I. Tyutchev, considered through the prism of aesthetic phenomena that arose in Russian literature of the first half of the XIX century.

The increased attention to the expression of existential concepts in aesthetic forms, in our opinion, is justified due to the fact that outstanding existential thinkers, primarily Sartre, regarded fiction as the best way to "convey human ideas and ideals" [12, p. 32]. It is also interesting that in modern studies Tyutchev is considered as a "harbinger" of the existence of "Jean Paul Sartre" [23, p. 87]. However, here it is necessary to make a reservation right away that, unlike Sartre, who represented the atheistic direction of existentialism, in Tyutchev's existential consciousness, on the contrary, faith in God occupied a dominant place, which we will show a little later. Therefore, the existential concepts inherent in Tyutchev's philosophical lyrics should undoubtedly be attributed to religious existentialism, the founder of which is considered to be Serena Kierkegaard. Although some Russian scientists are inclined to question this fact and hand over the palm of primacy in the basis of existentialism to the Russian poet Fyodor Ivanovich Tyutchev. For example, V. S. Bayevsky asserts that "in Russia, ten years before Kierkegaard, a poet of mystical revelations was born, for whom his deeply personal tragedies were echoes of world disorder, like Kierkegaard the creator of esoteric texts. Yes, it's about Tyutchev" [2, p. 2].

Purpose, methods and materialsThe purpose of the work is to identify the prerequisites for the formation of an existential paradigm of artistic consciousness in Tyutchev's work, primarily through the study of the influence of philosophical and aesthetic trends that developed in Russia in the first half of the XIX century on the poet's worldview.

The theoretical and methodological basis of the article is the classical works of outstanding existential philosophers and thinkers S. Kierkegaard, F. W. J. Schelling, K. Jaspers, as well as modern researchers in the field of existential philosophy and literary studies V. S. Bayevsky, L. O. Mysovskikh, B. N. Tarasov.

The research material is the poetic works of Tyutchev, in which the poet's attention is focused on the problem of human existence in the Universe, as well as the critical works of outstanding contemporaries of Tyutchev, who began studying his work during the poet's lifetime. The following research methods are used: biographical, hermeneutical, dialectical. The biographical method allows us to understand the origins of Tyutchev's interest in existential issues. The hermeneutic method makes it possible to consider the artistic images of Tyutchev's poetry in the cultural context of the epoch. The dialectical method promotes the knowledge of truth through reasoning and argumentation.

The origins of Tyutchev's worldview formationIt is paradoxical that Tyutchev is a "Russian European", connected by family ties with the noble families of Bavaria, who speaks and corresponds mainly in French, primarily uses his native language in lyrics.

Fyodor Ivanovich treated the sphere of poetry extremely intimately. It was the area where he could most fully express his deep feelings and thoughts, especially those that, due to the complexity and metaphysical coloring, it was difficult to insert into the framework of another literary genre. The existence of the national origins of Tyutchev's poetry was pointed out by N. A. Nekrasov in the famous article "Russian Minor Poets" [13]. I. S. Aksakov, who was also interested in the origins of Fyodor Ivanovich's artistic consciousness, stated that "Tyutchev was not only an original, deep thinker, not only a peculiar, true artist-poet, but also one of a small number of carriers, even engines of our Russian, national consciousness" [1, p. 71]. Aksakov, who knew the poet very closely, believed that Russian self-identification, or, using Kant's term, transcendental apperception, was the fundamental basis of Tyutchev's personality and creativity.

It should also be remembered that the formation of Tyutchev's worldview and personality was influenced by Christian culture, primarily Orthodoxy. Although Tyutchev's religiosity is sometimes considered as a controversial issue. In the studies of the poet's attitude to religion, two main trends can be distinguished. Within the framework of the first, Tyutchev is considered indifferent to the issues of the Christian faith, and the presence of Christian motives is interpreted as the use of conventional, generally accepted symbols. This line of research often connects Tyutchev with pantheism. This interpretation is presented by K. V. Pigarev and B. Ya. Buchstab. As part of the second trend, Tyutchev's literary heritage is interpreted in the spirit of Christianity. Supporters of this concept are modern researchers, among whom I. A.Yesaulov, B. N. Tarasov, A.V. Shapurina.

However, judging by the place the poet assigns to religion in his work and how important the categories of soul and spirit are for him, the problem of faith is not indifferent to him. On the contrary, as it turns out, this is an extremely topical issue for the poet. Karl Pfeffel, in a letter of 1873, quotes the significant words of Tyutchev himself, expressing the following thoughts in a conversation with Schelling: "A philosophy that rejects the supernatural and seeks to prove everything with the help of reason will inevitably come to materialism, and then wallow in atheism. The only philosophy compatible with Christianity is contained entirely in the Catechism. It is necessary to believe in what Saint Paul believed, and after him Pascal, to bow the knees before the Madness of the cross, or to deny everything. The supernatural lies in the depths of everything that is most natural in man. It has its roots in human consciousness, which are much stronger than what is called reason, this pathetic reason that recognizes only what it understands, that is, nothing!" [10, p. 37]. Thus, Tyutchev believes that the supernatural is hidden in the depths of human consciousness, a metaphysical element that could be defined in the light of Christian terminology as the soul. Combining spirituality, material mind and soul, Tyutchev is in some way a successor to the tradition of Lomonosov, who preached the idea of unity of faith with reason and science.

Features of the influence of the epoch on the formation of Tyutchev's existential consciousnessUnderstanding the epoch with which Tyutchev's first literary experiments are connected seems to us especially important.

This period in Russia was characterized by an intellectual and social revival caused by the events that took place in Western Europe and Russia. Russian Russian-French wars, mainly campaigns conducted in 1812-1815, contributed to the awakening and strengthening of a sense of community and national consciousness in the Russian masses. The stay of Russian soldiers in Western Europe influenced the cultural rapprochement between Russia and the West, accelerated the penetration of new social ideas, philosophical and literary trends into Russia. On the other hand, the initially liberal policy of Alexander I also contributed to the revival of intellectual life. The number of magazines published increased (in the first decade of the XIX century there were more than 80, and in 1825 about 160), literary and art salons operated. Literary societies began to arise, such as the Friendly Literary Society or the Society of Lovers of Russian Literature. In the twenties, as a result of the acute controversy around the "old" and "new" style, two literary groupings emerged: "Conversation of lovers of the Russian word" (1811-1816) and "Arzamas" (1815-1818). Both groups put forward their postulates in relation to the language and the tasks of literature.

In Russia, as in many European countries, German Romanticism had a significant influence on the formation of a new era. The philosophical concepts of Kant and Schelling, the poetic work of Goethe and Schiller aroused the interest of the enlightened part of Russian society in the first decades of the XIX century, especially the younger generation. German philosophy with its "comprehensiveness" sowed the seeds of new ideas, which were transformed in a peculiar way by Russian thinkers and creators. Thus, in the 20s and 30s of the XIX century there is a period of formation of a new picture of the world, which in the twentieth century V. V. Zenkovsky called aesthetic humanism.

In addition to the above educational and romantic influences, the importance of Christian culture and tradition should also be emphasized. Christian theological thought occupied a special place in the spiritual awakening of Russia. Discussion on the topic of Orthodoxy and Catholicism, presented in the Philosophical Letters (1836) by P. Ya.Chaadaeva, exacerbated the long-standing disputes of the Russian intelligentsia, which led to a polemic between Westerners and Slavophiles. During this period, the main ideas about Slavophile thought, closely related to Orthodoxy, appeared: the works of A. S. Khomyakov and I. V. Kireevsky. Ideological searches of the epoch, reflected in the works of A. S. Pushkin, M. Y. Lermontov, E. A. Baratynsky, did not bypass F. I. Tyutchev.

Shortly after the defeat of the Decembrist uprising, Tyutchev, who was an opponent of any revolutions, wrote a poem "December 14th, 1825" (1826), where he gives an ambivalent assessment of this event. The poet points out that the ideas of the Decembrists were unreasonable and ill-conceived: "About the victims of reckless thought" [15, p. 82], and their speech did not find understanding and support among the people who did not side with the rebels, because the people are alien to treachery. However, the problem of the poem is not limited to a unilateral condemnation of the rebels against the tsar. The author is not a supporter of power, which he describes with the words "autocracy", "eternal pole" and "iron winter". It seems that the poet blames the autocracy for the fact that his actions led to an unreasonable attempt at rebellion. Tyutchev denies any bloodshed. Already in the 20s, criticism of the revolution against the legitimate government (even if it is bad) appeared in his work. However, the poem sounds a note of regret for people who sacrificed themselves in the name of higher ideals and who will be forgotten.

Tyutchev was in contact with the circle of lovers of wisdom during his studies at Moscow University (1816-1821). Although it is impossible to speak about his direct belonging to the circle of Moscow idealists, it is known that he often communicated with its representatives both at the university and in society. The atmosphere of the university, as well as the influence of literary circles had a serious impact on the formation of the personality of the young poet. Of course, Tyutchev and Lyubomudrov were connected primarily by their worldview and love of philosophy. This was a generation of thinkers who were primarily interested in the spiritual sphere of human existence. It is not by chance that over time this feature of Tyutchev's creativity becomes of paramount importance. The desire to merge poetry and philosophy characterized the literature and social thought of this period in Russia. The combination of philosophical thought and poetry appears in the works of Pushkin, Baratynsky, Lermontov. Thus, it can be said that the literary activity of the lubomudry was an expression of the spirit of the epoch, fit into the plane of the fundamental development of literature and social thought in Russia of that time.

Tyutchev's Poetry as a way of expressing existential philosophical thoughtTyutchev's creative search also testifies to the desire to conclude a philosophical thought in a poetic word.

In this sense, Fyodor Ivanovich was a typical representative of his generation. However, this does not detract from the originality and artistic value of his literary heritage, but clearly emphasizes how much he was connected with this reality and how quickly changes were taking place in Russia. It must be assumed that in the person of Tyutchev we meet with a combination of an element emanating from the spirit of the times, with an element that is a manifestation of his extraordinary personality. What constituted the spirit of his time, apparently, constituted the essence of the poet. Tyutchev's lyrics combine originality and uniqueness with a certain typicality, which consists in the fact that the poet conveyed in his work the aspirations of his era.

The work of the Moscow idealists and the works of Tyutchev combine motives that arose with the era of Romanticism. In poetic matter, the similarity between Tyutchev and the Moscow idealists can be found primarily in philosophical and landscape lyrics, overflowing with romantic philosophical thought about the unity of man and nature. For example, Tyutchev expresses his desire to reconnect with nature in the poem "The Soul would like to be a star" (1836), where the landscape depicting the sky and stars has a cosmic dimension. The author opens up to the reader a space that is usually hidden from the human eye. The poet would like to penetrate into the sphere of pure ether. There is an echo of Lomonosov's theory of the corpuscular (atomic) construction of the world. According to Lomonosov, empty space cannot exist, it is filled with ether. Although the hypothesis of the Russian scientist was refuted, some of its assumptions formed the basis of the modern scientific atomic-molecular understanding of the world.

The romantic worldview assumed the existence of a soul in nature. Tyutchev also shows her in a number of his poems:

Not what you think, nature:

Not a cast, not a soulless face

There is a soul in it, there is freedom in it,

There is love in it, there is language in it... [15, p. 149]

The idea of the existence of the soul of nature led to the anthropomorphization of images of nature. In the poem "Summer Evening" (1829), nature acquires the features of a human being:

And a sweet thrill, like a jet,

Nature ran through my veins,

Like her hot feet

The key waters were touched [15, p. 92].

The image of nature is joyful, full of life, dynamic. The applied personification makes nature acquire the features of a young, radiant person. The image of nature is intertwined with the description of the inner state of a person.

The Moscow idealists and Tyutchev also have in common the question of antinomy, the duality of the world and human nature, the dialectical perception of the world. Polarity and the combination of opposites appears in Tyutchev's poem "MAL'ARIA" (1830):

I love this God's wrath! I love this, invisibly

There is a spilled, mysterious Evil in everything

In colors, in a source as transparent as glass,

And in the rainbow rays, and in the very sky of Rome.

Still the same high, cloudless firmament,

Your chest is still breathing easily and sweetly,

The same warm wind stirs the tops of the trees,

The same smell of roses, and that's all there is Death! .. [15, p. 124]

In fact, Tyutchev in this poem represents a borderline situation described already in the twentieth century in the existential theories of Karl Jaspers: "A person's spiritual situation arises only where he feels himself in borderline situations. There he remains as himself in existence, when it does not close, but all the time breaks up again into antinomies" [20, p. 322]. The air permeated with the scent of roses, the warm wind, which usually causes positive associations, in this poetic image are harbingers of death. And here there is an obvious analogy with the reflections on the death of the founder of existentialism, in particular, his religious trend, Seren Kierkegaard, who believed that from the point of view of the Christian religion, death "holds infinitely more hope than life, even filled with health and strength, brings us" [8, p. 27].

The idea of the antinomic nature of the world is also expressed by the motives of day and night, which are among the key ones in Tyutchev's work. Common features can be found in the night cycles of Tyutchev and Shevyrev's poems. In both cases, night is perceived as a special time when a person looks deep into his soul, realizes his true self, experiencing his own existence. In the poem "A Dream at Sea" (1836), the night perception of the world merges with the description of the mental state of the lyrical subject:

I, sleepy, was devoted to all the whims of the waves.

Two infinities were in me,

And they played with me wilfully.

Around me, like cymbals, the rocks sounded,

The winds called and the waves sang.

I lay stunned in the chaos of sounds,

But over the chaos of sounds my dream was carried [15, p. 136].

In the poem "What are you howling about, the night wind?" (1836) Tyutchev creates an even more gloomy night landscape and appeals to the howling wind:

Oh, don't sing these terrible songs

About the ancient chaos, about the beloved!

How greedy is the world of the soul of the night

He listens to the story of his beloved!

From the mortal he tears his chest,

He longs to merge with the infinite!..

Oh, don't wake up the storms that have fallen asleep

Chaos is moving under them!.. [15, p. 144]

The night in this poem is the moment when a person feels the desire for ontological unity with infinity. The voice of the night wind reminds the lyrical subject of eternal chaos. The language of nature is understandable to the human heart. Human language cannot convey everything that its owner feels. There is always a certain sphere that cannot be covered by words, because "the thought spoken is a lie" [15, p. 321]. At the same time, Tyutchev is a follower of the traditions of V. A. Zhukovsky, who had previously raised the question of the boundaries of the "earthly language" and art, believing that language and art cannot be called "sacred secrets" hidden in nature and man.

Tyutchev's poetry and creativity of representatives of various philosophical and aesthetic trends in Russia in the first half of the XIX century: general and specialTyutchev and the Moscow idealists create a new type of hero thinker.

He is faced with such existential problems as the place of man in the universe, the meaning of human life, understanding of the psyche and human feelings. He asks questions about the higher powers that rule the world. He faces "damned problems" that will worry Russian writers of the second half of the XIX century. It was poetic thought that contributed to the development of such a great psychologism in the second half of the XIX century.

Another theme that can be traced both among Russian Schellingianists and Tyutchev is the theme of Russia and its relationship to the West. In the lyrics dedicated to the Polish uprising of 1831, Tyutchev touches on the issue of the unity of the Slavs and the leading role of the Russian people. He also deplores the bloody defeat of the uprising. Similar feelings arise in Khomyakov's lyrics. Common to both poets is the use of allegory in political poems.

Some similarity between the works of Tyutchev and Lyubomudrov is also noticeable in the compositional plane of their poetic works. In both cases, short forms prevail, often with a composition based on a double or triple plan. Metaphor often plays a structural role. Poems devoted to the theme of nature are based mainly on the principle of paralleling the phenomena of nature and phenomena from the mental life of a person. Tyutchev and lyubomudry belonged to the same generation. However, some researchers believe that the poetry of lyubomudrov anticipates the appearance of Tyutchev. Thus, E. A. Maymin claims that "Khomyakov like Venevitinov began to write "Tyutchev-style" almost before Tyutchev himself, at least simultaneously with him and independently of him" [11, p. 291]. D. V.Venevitinov (1805-1827) was one of the first to introduce philosophical romanticism into Russian literature. "Much of what Venevitinov did in his work foreshadowed the subsequent poetic achievements of Baratynsky and especially Tyutchev" [11, p. 424].

In the history of Russian lyrics of the Romantic era, Venevitinov's poetry undoubtedly occupies an exceptional place. This poet, endowed with great talent, great sensitivity and at the same time a mind capable of assimilating and creatively interpreting the problems of idealistic philosophy, is an extremely important link in the development of Russian poetry. On the one hand, at the beginning of his creative career, he expresses the moods peculiar to the Decembrists, and on the other hand, foreshadows the appearance of a literary phenomenon, such as Tyutchev was. Moreover, the work of the propagandist of the poetry of thought, as Venevitinov was, allows us to understand and fully appreciate Tyutchev's poetry.

Noticing a number of coincidences between the works of Tyutchev and lyubomudrov, it is impossible not to notice, however, the superiority of Tyutchev. Lyubomudry could not turn their philosophical thought into poetry and, therefore, could not find a new form of poetry of thought, which was possible for such creators as Baratynsky, Pushkin, Lermontov and Tyutchev. L. Ya. Ginzburg also pointed out Tyutchev's superiority over the lubomudry: "Not the lubomudry, not Stankevich and his friends, but Tyutchev found an unprecedented language of philosophical poetry" [3, p. 94].

Maymin also sees the obvious incommensurability of Tyutchev's poetic talent and representatives of Moscow idealists: Khomyakov, Shevyrev, Venevitinov. He believes that the depth of creativity, the greatness of Tyutchev's talent do not allow him to put the poetic achievements of Russian Schellingianists on the same level with him. The originality of Tyutchev is evidenced, according to Maymin, by the poetics and language of his poems. The researcher believes that the metaphysical nature of the works could be conveyed only with the help of refined poetics and style: "Not only Tyutchev's poetry was the poetry of thought, but, accordingly, its language was the language of thought" [11, p. 417]. Tyutchev found the most suitable form of expression for his poetry a specific language using archaisms and Church Slavonic terms, due to formal features related to the stylistics of classicism, but at the same time open to new artistic possibilities.

The creativity of lyubomudrov did not end after 1825. Many of them, with the exception of Venevitinov, who died young, continued their literary work. The destinies of the writers who participated in the love of wisdom movement developed in different ways. Khomyakov and Kireevsky became preachers of Slavophile ideas, Shevyrev moved to the pro-monarchist conservative camp. However, the philosophical poetry born of their search does not disappear, but is continued by the poets of the Tyutchev pleiad, to which, in addition to Fyodor Ivanovich himself, Yakubovich and Benediktov also belong.

Russian Russian literature and philosophy were influenced by the generation of the Lubomudry and early Tyutchev. The influence of the generation of the Lubomudry and the early Tyutchev on the development of both Russian literature and Russian philosophy is very significant. Moscow idealists did not create, however, a certain philosophical concept, but their activities can be considered as an original commentary on Russian culture, which opened the way for the next stages of the development of philosophical thought. They were the first to raise the question of the importance of knowledge in human life, stressed the importance of spiritual life, the formation of self-awareness, drew attention to the moral decline of European civilization. It seems that this generation of creators, to which Tyutchev and Lyubomudry belonged, developed a kind of type of Russian philosophy, whose specificity consists in the fact that it is expressed through art, and primarily through literature.


For the ontological embodiment of philosophical thought, an external form is necessary the language that philosophy seeks in science or in art. And if European philosophers usually turned to science, then Russian philosophical thought often tends to the language of art. This is what gives reason to assert that "our philosophical luminaries are Pushkin, Dostoevsky, Tolstoy. They have moral problems in the first place" [4, p. 293].

Thus, if the Russian philosophical thought of the middle of the XIX century expresses itself most fully in art, then it is possible to point out the fundamental difference between lyubomudry and Tyutchev. The creativity of the lovers of wisdom is based on ready-made premises, as a result of which the provisions of philosophical theories are translated into poetic language. Tyutchev's creative path is the opposite of this trend, since Fyodor Ivanovich does not seek to illustrate other people's views in a poetic word, but tries to formulate his own, original poetic and philosophical thought. And in this sense, Tyutchev is really a "Russian European".

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The article presented for consideration "The existential paradigm of F. I. Tyutchev's creativity in the context of philosophical and aesthetic research of the first half of the XIX century", proposed for publication in the journal Philology: Scientific Research, is undoubtedly relevant, due to the growing interest in the research of philosophical motives in the works of Russian classics. The subject of reflection in this article is the poetic legacy of F. I. Tyutchev, considered through the prism of aesthetic phenomena that arose in Russian literature in the first half of the XIX century. The purpose of the work is to identify the prerequisites for the formation of an existential paradigm of artistic consciousness in Tyutchev's work, primarily through the study of the influence of philosophical and aesthetic trends that developed in Russia in the first half of the XIX century on the poet's worldview. Already the first publishers and critics of Fyodor Tyutchev's poetry I. Aksakov, N. Nekrasov, I. Turgenev, A. Fet emphasized not only the beauty of the images of nature created by the Russian poet, but also their deep philosophical character. Tyutchev's philosophical perception of nature underlies his existential and ideological concepts. However, this side of the poet's work turned out to be little explored during the Soviet and post-Soviet periods of our country's development, respectively, this work is one of those that will be able to fill the resulting scientific gap. The research material is Tyutchev's poetic works, in which the poet's focus is the problem of human existence in the universe, as well as the critical works of Tyutchev's outstanding contemporaries, who began studying his work during the poet's lifetime. However, the author does not provide information on how extensive the language corpus taken for study is, what are the criteria for selecting text material, what time period the material belongs to, what methods were used for selection: continuous sampling or specialized. The article presents a research methodology, the choice of which is quite adequate to the goals and objectives of the work. The author turns, among other things, to various methods to confirm the hypothesis put forward. The following research methods are used: biographical, hermeneutical, dialectical. This work was done professionally, in compliance with the basic canons of scientific research. We note the scrupulous work of the author on the selection of practical material and its analysis. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. However, the disadvantage is the lack of information about the development of the topic in literary studies, which would help to understand the author's contribution to solving the stated issue. The bibliography of the article contains 26 sources, among which works are presented in both Russian and foreign languages. A greater number of references to authoritative works, such as monographs, doctoral and/or PhD dissertations on related topics, which could strengthen the theoretical component of the work in line with the national scientific school. In addition, we note the carelessness of the design of the list of references (sources are drawn up according to different GOST standards, obviously the author did not pay attention to this when copying and did not bring it into a uniform form). However, these remarks are not essential and do not relate to the scientific content of the reviewed work. In general, it should be noted that the article is written in a simple, understandable language for the reader. Typos, spelling and syntactic errors, inaccuracies in the text of the work were not found. The work is innovative, representing the author's vision of solving the issue under consideration. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "The existential paradigm of F. I. Tyutchev's creativity in the context of philosophical and aesthetic research in the first half of the XIX century" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal