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Philology: scientific researches
Reference:

Cosmo-psycho-logos of the Spanish language in the teaching of foreign languages

Osmushina Anastasiya Andreevna

ORCID: 0000-0003-2982-2772

PhD in Philosophy

Associate Professor of the Department of English for Professional Communication, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "N. P. Ogarev National Research Mordovian State University"

430005, Russia, respublika Mordoviya, g. Saransk, ul. Bol'shevistskaya, 68

98761985@mail.ru

DOI:

10.7256/2454-0749.2023.1.38502

EDN:

IXRVKN

Received:

24-07-2022


Published:

06-02-2023


Abstract: The relevance of the work lies in the understanding that knowledge of logic, epistemology, ontology of language contributes to the competent implementation of the dialogue of cultures. The purpose of the study is to formulate the Cosmo-Psycho-Logos system of the Spanish language in comparison with Russian, English, German and French, as well as to substantiate the importance of introducing CPL in teaching a foreign language. The subject of the study is the CPL of the Spanish language. The methods of our research include general scientific methods of analyzing sources, namely colloquial Spanish speech on the example of 10 films and TV series, Spanish folklore, including modern, selected by random sampling (200 Spanish folk tales recorded by folklorists during the XIX and XX centuries, as well as 200 anecdotes), as well as analysis of secondary research material, i.e. works on this problem. The main approach in the work is a comparative approach, a set of comparative and general scientific methods is used to analyze the features of the Spanish language and systematize the data obtained. Thus, the analysis of the Spanish language is carried out at the morphological, semantic and syntactic levels, the elements of the Spanish language are compared with similar elements and systems of the Russian, English, German and French languages. The results of the study are a description of the CPL of the Spanish language, and also demonstrate that the epistemology, logic, ontology of the language are closely related to its semantics, morphology and syntax. Language ethics and aesthetics are reflected in the vocabulary. Spanish space-time relations are dynamic and inseparable. The Spanish ontology demonstrates the great functionality of the object. Spanish logic is indicative, inductive, coherent. Personal goal determines action, self-organization determines tectology. Spanish ethics is situational, while Spanish aesthetics indicates sensuality. This research can be supplemented by further work on Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of other languages, as well as on the didactics of the use of CPL in teaching a foreign language.


Keywords:

Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of the Spanish language, ethnic group, language, logic, epistemology, ontology, ethics, aesthetics, tectology, dialogue of cultures

Introduction

The relevance of this research is based on the comprehension that at present time the dialogue of cultures is regarded as crucially important. Moreover, in the era of globalization and digitalization, people expect maximum efficiency and suggestiveness of speech. At that, communication abilities and comprehensive transference of the utterance meanings are important. Dialogue is not regarded as a mere exchange of denotative information, but as a capacity to engage in the dialogue of cultures, to join in foreign environment and culture leveling the culture shock. The scientific problem is insufficient development and consistency of research that would facilitate including the features of the peoples’ cultures, worldviews, and thinking in the foreign languages teaching practice.

A lot of valuable researches on the native speakers’ peculiarities of thinking and logic, psychology, and world perception were combined in the conception of Cosmo-Psycho-Logos (further CPL). CPL is a conception appearing at the intersection of philosophy, linguistics, semiotics, psychology, and culture study. CPL reflects the peculiarities of ethnic thinking, cognition, values, and norms. CPL of every ethos conjugates, i.e., affects and changes categories of culture and philosophy. CPL conception systemically combines various analytical approaches, eliminating contradictions and combining the experience of various scientific trends.

Aims and Tasks

Nobody formulated Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of the Spanish language. Given the increased interest in learning Spanish in Russia, including it in the curriculum of several regional schools, I consider formulating the system of Spanish Cosmo-Psycho-Logos an important task. I purposefully compare it to the relevant data concerning English, German, French, and Russian, to create clear and dimensional results.

Methodology and Terminology

The object of research comprises Cosmo-Psycho-Logos as a didactic tool and Spanish epistemology, ontology, logic, ethics, aesthetics, and tectology. The subject of the analysis includes the features of expression of time and space, good and beautiful, the semantic and morphologic peculiarities of Spanish in comparison with Russian, English, German and French. The primary research material is the Spanish language, namely, Spanish speech in 10 films and series, and folklore, including modern, selected by random sampling (200 Spanish folk tales recorded by folklorists during the XIX and XX centuries, as well as 200 anecdotes).

The basis of the analytical system is the substrate approach within analytical philosophy as the most complete methodological apparatus of space-time, axiological and praxeological matrices. The works of A. Gagaev and A. Bukarev provide the methodological, structural, and philosophical foundations for this research. The main approach in the work is a comparative approach, a set of comparative and general scientific methods is used to analyze the features of the Spanish language and systematize the data obtained. Thus, the analysis of the Spanish language is carried out at the morphological, semantic and syntactic levels, the elements of the Spanish language are compared with similar elements and systems of the Russian, English, German and French languages.

To decide whether including CPL in the language teaching is reasonable, we use the source-critical method analyzing the works on the challenges and difficulties of intercultural dialogue, effectiveness in communication, foreign language teaching, and formation of contemporary competencies.

Literature Review

The scientific society has long recognized the importance of minding the cultural peculiarities when speaking and teaching foreign languages. Anthropologists, psychologists, and pedagogues consider various aspects of the issue. Thus, language is regarded as a mechanism of cultural learning in the works of O. Morin who emphasizes the importance of cultural learning and social learning [28]. K. A. Watson-Gegeo grounds that the language socialization paradigm for Second Language Acquisition includes social interaction [46]. Her ideas have a lot in common with the works of Russian scientists [29] not to mention foreign pedagogues [26]. J. Keiser draws our attention to the importance of metasemantics and communicating as having others attend to the context and the goals [22]. Russian pedagogues consider cultural knowledge an essential competence to study foreign languages, a means of dialogue between cultures, of understanding the unity and the difference of cultures, and the ability to express one’s thoughts and feelings [16; 24; 25; 30; 45]. The works of the Dutch anthropologist M. Slors contain the following conception we accept: for successful communication one needs to understand cultural conventions and cognitive, and phenomenological particularities [6; 40]. Thus, the problem of minding cultural peculiarities when speaking and teaching language was examined both in Russia and abroad, however, the above-mentioned studies lack elaboration. Besides cultural conventions, such phenomena as language epistemology, logic, ontology, ethics, and aesthetics require attention as well.

Linguists and psychologists analyzed various languages and singled out specific epistemological peculiarities [34; 35; 44], separate spatial features [10-12; 27; 38], temporal specifics [9; 14; 22; 39], characteristics of transmission of certain categories [7; 17; 20; 21; 42; 43]. However, the researches lack consistency.

The CPL of the language can be considered as a system of data on the psychological, logical, and linguistic features of the language, the thinking, and the culture of the ethnos. Language determines thinking [36; 47], and thinking determines language. A language is not just a set of tools, but a mechanism for forming thought and consciousness [32; 33]. Language learning serves as a tool for studying consciousness [19]. Modern researches in the field where overlap linguistics, psychology, and philosophy of language include H. Święczowska, B. Pyecychna, I. R. Odilov [31; 41].

The peculiarities of thinking of a non-native speaker should not determine their speech in a foreign language. There is no doubt about the importance of cognitive control and skilled action when socializing with different cultures [6; 13; 15]. Thus, the above-mentioned works address certain issues of cultural and social competence of the language learner. The issue is covered the most fully and systematically in the Cosmo-Psycho-Logos conception.

Single elements of the conception were introduced in the works of E. Benveniste [8] and F. de Saussure [37] who stated the possibility to reveal the logic type in a language. The language reproduces the world subordinating the thought to the language structure. And vice versa, the language structure determines the thinking and the cognition processes modeling the mind and the notions [47]. The theory of cultural and historical types of N. Danilevsky [5] gave the development of the conception. Then G. Gachev introduced the term and the structure of the CPL [4]. A. Gagaev developed the theory further declaring integrity of “cosmos” i.e. genesis, nature, the material system, “logos” i.e. the notion, the frame of mind, the type of logic, and “psyche” i.e. reflection, the soul, the national character. He applied this theory to the analysis of the Russian and the Ugro-Finnish CPLs [2; 3]. A. Bukarev defended his thesis comparing Russian, English, German and French CPLs [1]. However, nobody singled out the CPL of the Spanish language though it is one of the most popular European languages taught in Russian schools.

Results

If we regard social etiquette and cultural conventions in general as role coordination [11] then comprehending Cosmo-Psycho-Logos facilitates multitasking and consequently the interaction coordination. If we regard social cognition as a set of cognitive gadgets [28] CPL can be regarded as a cognitive gadget alongside language, literacy, imitation, and others.

To communicate effectively and to avoid the culture shock we need the near-automation comprehension of the various shades of constants and the different world and person-in-the-world pictures. In order to obtain the near-automation level of language proficiency, to master cultural conventions a person should mind the epistemological, logical, ontological, ethical, and aesthetic features of the language.

Epistemological peculiarities of the language should be taught alongside the time, space, state, and movement vocabulary.

A. Gagaev and A. Bukarev determined that English epistemology is functional since it is expressed by verbs, French epistemology is dualistic and contradictory since French functionality is linked to nouns and adjectives, German epistemology is focused on bases of words, Russian epistemology is based on substrate reflection and the definition of relations by properties and supposes inseparability, non-invertibility, nontransformation of space-time. In Russian space implies a form of existence of matter, a place for movement, without the movement itself. In English the word “space” has a potential for conversion, besides, it includes the place and the movement (“to space”) [1]. Like the French word “espace”, the Spanish word “espacio” which means space, carries the potential of movement, and also means time, a period of time. Spanish epistemology models the functionality of an object in the space-time continuum as that of a dynamic object. In addition, while in Russian the verb marking location or state is often omitted, in the present tense the verb "to be" is omitted constantly, in English and French there are single verbs “to be” and “être” for marking both the state and the location, in Spanish, there are various verbs for location (“estar”) and state (“ser”), which indicates a greater ontological functional potential of the language (Spanish object has more planes of movement). The following example shows the application of “ser”. “Todos los ríos eran muy anchos y ellos eran tan pequeños que les dio miedo no poder cruzarlos…” [18, p. 38]. Then, the following citation demonstrates the use of “estar”. “Y si no, pregunte a estos pasajeros que han venido conmigo, que hace tan sólo media hora estaban en Roma” [18,p. 54].

The presence of masculine and feminine articles (the gender of a noun is determined mainly by the ending) models gender determinism. The determinant (definite and indefinite articles) defines an object as real or ideal, constructing a system of relations between the subject and the object and its place in it, fixes the definiteness of the object, and also assumes expressed ingression and egression. The following example demonstrates the array of articles in Spanish: “Llevo todo el día pidiendo, pero no me dieron lo bastante para comer todos y como no me llegaba me fui a ver al señor cura para encargarle una misa por el alma más necesitada. Entonces aquel señor sacó un papel y escribió en él un nombre y le dijo a la mujer” [18, p. 4].

I find it useful to accompany teaching semantics and syntax with the language logic analysis.

The logical foundations and the system of laws of logic determine the inductivity of Spanish thinking, and the model of truth and its movement from foundations to consequences are determined by semantics and syntax (inflection, tenses, changing verbal basis, lack of postpositions). In Spanish, the logic of definiteness and sequence is expressed using articles, tenses, and verb endings whereas in Russian, the logic of indefinite judgments prevails [2]. The logic of certainty is stronger in Spanish than in English, and even more so than in French, not to mention Russian. Moreover, Spanish verbs are not easily converted into nouns unlike English ones; the action and the fact are separated on the different planes of the functional structure, one does not flow into the other, but the state passes into another form. As a comparison, Russian words meaning the process and the result of learning differ with the prefix while English, French and Spanish words with the similar meaning “learn – knowledge”, “apprendre – connaissance”, ““comprender – saber” have different origins, as in the following examples. “Mucha gente acudió al pregón del rey, pero nadie supo curar a la princesa, que languidecía sin remedio” [18, p. 42].“Y el rey comprendió que no tenía más remedio que ceder y ordenó que preparasen su coche” [18, p. 44]. While indicative and absolute social deixis prevail in Russian [2], relative deixis dominates in English, nominative, relative and social deixis are the most frequent in French, indicative and social deixis prevail in German. Indicative deixis prevails in Spanish. The logical sequence is indicative, and the axiom of the sequence is linear (which differs from the Russian one). While German logic is deductive, English logic is inductive, French logic is phenomenological (both deductive and inductive), and Russian logic is contradictory [1]. Spanish type of logic is inductive, and conclusions are based on system-forming properties and relationships. Content analysis of the analyzed material shows deductive logic in 10% of cases, subductive conclusions take 20% of cases, and inductive conclusions account for 70%. While English epistemology models the importance of social status, German epistemology states the importance of duty and responsibility, Spanish epistemology demonstrates the importance of interpersonal relations, links, and social positions.

The morphological features can find their origin in the language ontology and vice versa.

The functionality of the Spanish ontology is higher than that of the Russian one. If the Russian ontology includes the understanding of the general as a system, the main element, and at the same time the logical connection of which is the particular [2], the Spanish ontology is dualistic. The functionality is specified by the names. If we consider the system of tenses as levers, and personal endings as mechanisms of influence on the object, then in Spanish there is a greater number of levers of influence than in Russian, and more mechanisms than, for example, in French and especially in English (personal endings do not coincide in pronunciation, as in French, and have not disappeared almost completely, as in English). This determines the greater order, cellular structure of the system, and greater functionality of the object.

The vocabulary of the language vividly reflects its ethics and aesthetics. I consider it essential to teach and learn the shades of the word meanings, the peculiarities of the separate concepts and the ethnos thinking in general, and the ethics and aesthetics of the language for effective intercultural communication.

Russian ethics understand good as non-possessiveness and equality within the Russian superethnos [2]. In German ethics good supposes order and hierarchy ensuring the German ethnos equality. English and German understandings of good comprise pleasant appearance with solid quality and usefulness. The only difference of the French one is that the French distinguish between good (“bien”) and kindness (“bonte”) [1]. Spanish concept of good (“bondad”) includes benevolence, courtesy, and favor. Thus, in the Spanish CPL, good is a personal concept. Spanish ethics is inductive, set by the situation, based on the feeling. Good is generally understood as following the axioms of life that are based on the model of the truth. Local, ethnic, cultural-typical good is based on the model of the truth compatible with the general, universal, necessary, and universally valid therefore ethnic form of good is a part of the world good. This does not include the idea of the interference of any other peoples or humanity as a whole into the will and the historical development of any ethnos.

Russian aesthetics interprets the concept of beautiful as good in its proportionality, causing a cathartic experience of an ethical nature [2]. In English aesthetics, the concept of beautiful means the proportionality of the object’s appearance. The French understand beauty as the harmony of properties, relationships, and functions [1]. In Spanish aesthetics, the category of beauty includes pleasant appearance, natural harmony, sensory and emotional pleasure, and joy.

The structures and systems of the language are inextricably linked to the Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of the ethnos and correspond to the tectological and praxeological structures.

The following model demonstrates the relation of the subject to the object of thinking and the idealism of Spanish thinking: M(Pxy & Px > Py). Namely, the content of the model i.e. the intentional is greater than the content of the reflected reality i.e. the extensional.

Russian tectology supposes the centralization, the action is centrally organized and random, uncertain [2]. English tectology suggests self-organization. French tectology combines self-organization with centralization. German tectology supposes hierarchical centralization [1]. Spanish tectology suggests self-organization, the action is personal and locally common, consistent, determined by interest.

Discussion

This research aimed to analyze the foundations of Spanish CPL. I discovered the following peculiarities. The logical foundations and the system of logic laws determine the inductivity of Spanish thinking. Spanish type of logic is inductive, and conclusions are based on system-forming properties and relationships. While English epistemology models importance of the social status, German epistemology states the importance of duty and responsibility, Spanish epistemology demonstrates the importance of interpersonal relations, links, and social positions. The functionality of Spanish ontology is higher than that of the Russian one. Spanish ethics is inductive, it is set by the situation, and based on feelings. Spanish aesthetics is sensual. The following model demonstrates the relation of the subject to the object of thinking and idealism of Spanish thinking: M(Pxy & Px > Py). Namely, the content of the model i.e. the intensional is greater than the content of the reflected reality i.e. the extensional.

Conclusion

In general, the results of my research indicate the importance of CPL use for SLA. Understanding Cosmo-Psycho-Logos helps to understand and determine the logic and values of the ethnic group, their role, and their degree of influence on the thinking mode and actions of a person.

The study provides a complete systematic analysis of the Spanish language’s CPL. Spanish epistemology implies the inseparability of space and time as a dynamic complex. Spanish ontology is dualistic and functional. Spanish logic is indicative, inductive, with axioms of coherence, certainty, ingression, egression. Action in Spanish is determined by a personal goal. Tectology in Spanish is determined by self-organization. Spanish ethic-aesthetic complex is characterized by sensuality. Spanish ethics is situational, inductive. Harmony, beauty, and naturalness determine Spanish aesthetics. Thus, I formulated the model of the Spanish Cosmo-Psycho-Logos. Identity and identification, methods of cognition and understanding of laws, the logic of thinking and learning, worldview, the normative-value system of an ethnic group – CPL comprises all these philosophical categories defining natural and most effective normative and educational systems of society.

I consider the abovementioned data crucially useful for second language acquisition. Epistemological peculiarities of the language could be taught alongside time, space, state, and movement vocabulary. I found it useful to accompany semantics and syntax teaching with the language’s logic analysis. Morphological features can find their origin in language ontology and vice versa. The vocabulary of the language vividly reflects its ethics and aesthetics. I consider it essential to teach and learn shades of word meanings, peculiarities of separate concepts, and ethnic thinking in general, as well as ethics and aesthetics of the language for effective intercultural communication. Structures and systems of the language are inextricably linked to Cosmo-Psycho-Logos of the ethnos and correspond to tectological and praxeological structures. Further research should detail didactics of CPL use within language teaching. Further research on CPL of other languages is also relevant.

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The article "Cosmo-psycho-logos of the Spanish language" submitted for consideration, proposed for publication in the journal "Philology: Scientific Research", is undoubtedly relevant, due to the growing interest in learning Spanish in our country and in the world, due to the dynamic development of Latin American countries. The relevance of this study is based on the understanding that the dialogue of cultures is currently considered critically important. Moreover, in the era of globalization and digitalization, people expect maximum efficiency and expressiveness of speech. At the same time, communication skills and comprehensive transmission of the meaning of the statement are important. The scientific problem lies in the insufficient elaboration and consistency of research that would contribute to taking into account the peculiarities of culture, worldview and thinking of peoples in the practice of teaching foreign languages. The author attempts to solve this problem within the framework of this article. The article is methodical, it examines not so much the linguistic aspects as the pedagogical aspects of teaching Spanish as a foreign language. However, no specific methodological proposals were made by the author. The empirical basis was the Spanish language: "The primary research material is the Spanish language". However, this statement is extremely lengthy, since the scope and principles of sampling the linguistic material on which the study is based are unclear. The author does not specify the sample size and its principles. How large is the text corpus taken for study, what time period does it belong to / what is its localization? In addition, no Spanish-language examples are given, there are no statistics that would confirm the work with the corpus. In this paper, the author relies on a comparative approach analyzing the Spanish language at morphological, syntactic and semantic levels, comparing elements of the Spanish language with similar elements and systems of Russian, French, German and English. Thus, a set of comparative and general scientific methods is used to analyze the peculiarities of the Spanish language and systematize the data obtained. However, this fact is not reflected in the article. The research was carried out in line with modern scientific approaches, the work consists of an introduction containing the formulation of the problem, the main part, traditionally beginning with a review of theoretical sources and scientific directions, a research and a final one, which presents the conclusions obtained by the author. However, the disadvantage is the lack of information about the development of the topic in linguistics / translation practice, which would help to understand the author's contribution to solving the stated issue. The bibliography of the article contains 46 sources (which seems superfluous), among which works are presented in both Russian and foreign languages. Unfortunately, the article does not contain references to fundamental works such as monographs, PhD and doctoral dissertations. A greater number of references to authoritative works, such as monographs, doctoral and/or PhD dissertations on related topics, which could strengthen the theoretical component of the work in line with the national scientific school. The article is submitted for review in English. The article will undoubtedly be useful to a wide range of people, philologists, undergraduates and graduate students of specialized universities. The article "Cosmo-psycho-logos of the Spanish language" can be recommended for publication in a scientific journal after revision: 1) clarifying the relationship between the title and the text, 2) confirming the above conclusions with examples, 3) reflecting the tasks set in the conclusions, 4) reformulating the author's Self in the final part of the article.

Second Peer Review

Peer reviewers' evaluations remain confidential and are not disclosed to the public. Only external reviews, authorized for publication by the article's author(s), are made public. Typically, these final reviews are conducted after the manuscript's revision. Adhering to our double-blind review policy, the reviewer's identity is kept confidential.
The list of publisher reviewers can be found here.

The reviewed article "Cosmo-psycho-logos of the Spanish language in teaching foreign languages" is presented in English and is devoted to the study of the peculiarities of the expression of time and space, good and beautiful, semantic and morphological features of the Spanish language in comparison with Russian, English, German and French. In our opinion, the presented research is interdisciplinary in nature and affects philosophy, philology, psychology and intercultural communication. In this regard, I consider this article only partially relevant to the format and subject matter of the journal "Philology: Scientific research". The content of the work corresponds to its title and will be interesting to a wide range of readers, especially those who are interested in teaching Spanish. The work is a complete study in which the terminology necessary for this study is correctly used, the scientific style and genre are maintained. The purpose and objectives of the article are quite clearly traced. The work is clearly structured, consists of an introduction, goals and objectives, research methods and terminology, literature review, results, discussion and conclusion, which fully corresponds to the structure of modern academic articles. The research material was the Spanish language of 10 films and TV series, folklore, including modern, selected by random sampling (200 Spanish folk tales recorded by folklorists during the XIX and XX centuries, as well as 200 anecdotes). The work is based on 47 sources presented in the list of references, which are relevant, relevant to the content of the work and designed in accordance with all the requirements. The research methods used, in our opinion, are very productive and allow the author to achieve his goal. As a result of his research, the author comes to the conclusion that Spanish epistemology implies the inseparability of space and time as a dynamic complex. The Spanish ontology is dualistic and functional. Spanish logic is indicative, inductive, with the axioms of coherence, certainty, ingression, regression. The action in Spanish is determined by a personal goal. Tectology in Spanish is defined by self-organization. The Spanish ethical and aesthetic complex is characterized by sensuality. Spanish ethics is situational, inductive. Harmony, beauty and naturalness define the Spanish aesthetic. Thus, the author formulated the model of the Spanish cosmo-psycho-logos. Identity and identification, methods of cognition and understanding of laws, logic of thinking and learning, worldview, normative value system of the ethnos - cosmopsycho-logos includes all these philosophical categories that define the natural and most effective normative and educational systems of society. These conclusions find their argumentation in the text of the work. The article follows the basic rules for quoting other authors. The quality of the design of the work is quite high, there are no comments. The English language in which the article is written is correct, there are no lexical, grammatical or stylistic errors in the work. In general, the work meets the basic requirements for the preparation of academic journal articles and can be recommended for publication in the journal "Philology: Scientific Research".