Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2016-10 in rubric "Editor-in-Chief's column", pages 1379-1382.
Resume: The author attempts to reveal the essence of the anthropological plots developed by Aristotle. Aristotle highlights the notions of “class” and “type”, and according to this pattern as an illustration names a man. He interprets human as the creature of nature that occupies its niche in living nature. At the same time, Aristotle underlines the social qualities of human, and considers him a social creature. That is how the classical scheme of interpretation of human is being formed. Human is perceived as a thing among other things, who deserves a particular niche in the universe. The article determines the main position of classical tradition originated by Aristotle. The author uses the principle of historicism that allows him comparing the classical and nonclassical traditions in understanding of a human. For the first time in Russian literature, the extensive analysis of the anthropological concept of Aristotle is given. The author examines the interpretations of such basic notions as human nature and human essence. The two philosophical paradigms in interpretation of human are being analyzed. It is demonstrated that the anthropology of the essence and substance does not allow characterizing the being of a man, which is based on freedom and responsibility of a man for his being. Aristotle’s concept is subjected to criticism in the modern discussions. However, it is important to consider that in the broad heritage of Aristotle, have been formed the principles of specific contemplation of human, which perhaps lost their meaning in nonclassical understanding of human.
Keywords: Psychics, Universe, Substance, Type, Class, Philosophical anthropology, Social qualities, Essence, Nature, Human
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