Published in journal "History magazine: researches", 2016-4 in rubric "CULTURAL HERITAGE - HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL ARTEFACTS", pages 455-460.
Resume: Based on rarely used archival and document material, this article analyzes the role of Highlanders material culture of the Wartime (13th–17th centuries), represented by armory and fortifications. This article states that all Caucasian nations developed a clear defense system against foreign enemies and fellow tribesmen alike, who were raid driven by feudal elites, need or personal bravado. Therefore, there are almost no settlements in the Caucasus region, where turrets or habitable towers did not overlook the buildings and surrounding grounds did not have defense walls, customs posts, cave covers, fortresses or castle-like complexes. Methodological basis for this article was formed by historical and comparative, structural, abstract and logical research methods. Each of them had a particular application and played a significant part in processing, systematization and generalization of studied sources. Specifically, historical and comparative method allowed to analyze the facts under comparison and thereupon define both consistent patterns and characteristics of discovering Highlander material culture of the Wartime, represented by fortifications and armory of all kind. Structural analysis method was necessary for a study of complex structural components without dividing them into elements. Abstract and logical method allowed generalization, synthesis and integration of article’s conclusions. The author concludes that the fortification culture was defined by the genetic ties to the empirics of house building and therefore contained all the positive achievements of ethnic architecture. Its workmanship was beautifully reflected in historical and cultural landmarks created by the nations who inhabited this region.
Keywords: ethnic architecture., fortified culture, cave fortifications, creative activities, North Caucasus region, mountain peoples of the Caucasus, battle towers, Housing, Construction technology, Monumental buildings
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