Published in journal "History magazine: researches", 2016-4 in rubric "Ethnography and ethnology", pages 405-413.
Resume: This article is focused on Gothicism – historical myth, according to which all nations of the Northern Europe are of Goth descendance. The myth takes its origin in the 15th century Scandinavia. Two centuries later it was adopted by the English and in the 17th century – by the Scots. The subject of this research is the concept of Gothism in Scotland. According to this concept, the Scots were proclaimed as the ancestors of the Piñts – a nation, whose ethnogenesis is still a subject of wider debate. They were assigned to have German origins, and therefore – the Scottish nation supposed to be of the same origin. The aim of this article is to broaden the concept of Gothicism in Russian historical science that has mostly worked with German and Scandinavian sources and has used the infamous Norman theory. This article follows the development of Gothicism concept in Scotland. Due to specific character of this research, the author used the historism methodology, which in this case meant the learning of Gothicism’s role and place in its historical context. Nevertheless, the author explored the value of Scottish Gothicism for modern science, – as an idea of Picts’ German origin. This article states that the concept of Gothicism had demonstrated the consequences of country’s separation into Lowlanders and Highlanders-Gaels. In order to avoid comparisons with the Irish and “the wild Celts” (whose image was extremely popular among the English), representatives of Scottish intellectual circles created a new identity, borrowing the concept of Gothicism from the English. This article also makes the case that Gothicism, as a version of Scottish national myth, had existed for a hundred years and was later succeeded by the concept of Teutonism, in terms of which the german origin theory was developed.
Keywords: Great Britain, lowlands, 19th century, celts, Goths, 18th century, Picts, Gothicism, national myth, Scotland
John of Fordun. Chronicle of the Scottish Nation. Ed. by William F. Skene. Edinburgh, 1872.
Gillingham J. The English in the Twelfth Century: Imperialism, National Identity, and Political Values. Woodbridge, 2000.
Farley F.E. Scandinavian Influences in the English Romantic Movement. Boston, 1903.
Ferguson A.B. Utter Antiquity: Perceptions of Prehistory in Renaissance England. Durham and London, 1993.
Parry G. The Trophies of Time: English Antiquarians of the Seventeenth Century. Oxford, 2007.
Kidd C. North Britishness and the nature of eighteenth-century British patriotisms // The Historical Journal. June 1996. Vol. 39. Issue 2. P. 361-382.
Home H. Essay Upon Several Subjects Concerning British Antiquities. Edinburgh, 1763 (1st edition-1746).
Craig T. Jus feudale. Tom. I. Edinburgh, 1934 (1st edition-1603).
Dalrymple J. An Essay towards a General History of Feudal Property in Great Britain. L., 1758.
Mackenzie G. The Lives and Characters of the Most Eminent Writers of the Scots Nation. Vol I. Edinburgh, 1708.
Pezron P.-Y. The antiquities of nations; more particularly of the Celtæ or Gauls, taken to be originally the same people as our ancient Britains (trans. by Jones D.). L., 1706.
Macpherson J. An Introduction to the History of Great Britain and Ireland. L., 1773 (3rd edition).
Camden W. Britannia: Or a Chorographical Description of Great Britain and Ireland. L., 1722 (1st edition 1586).
Pinkerton J. An Enquiry Into the History of Scotland: Preceding the Reign of Malcolm III, Or the Year 1056. Vol. I. L., 1814.
Buchanan G. The History of Scotland. Vol I. Glasgow, 1827 (1st edition 1582).
Sibbald R. A History Ancient and Modern of the Sheriffdoms of Fife and Kinross. L., 1803 (1st edition 1710).
Pinkerton J. An Enquiry Into the History of Scotland: Preceding the Reign of Malcolm III, Or the Year 1056. Vol. II. L., 1814.
Ferguson W. The Identity of Scottish Nation: A Historis Quest. Edinburgh, 1998.
McNeil K. Scotland, Britain, Empire: Writing the Highlands, 1760-1860. Ohio, 2007.
Jamieson J. An etymological dictionary of the Scottish language; to which is prefixed, a dissertation on the origin of the Scottish language. Vol. I. Paisley, 1879.
Ritson J. Annals of the Caledonians, Picts and Scots. Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1828.
Chalmers G. Caledonia: or, a historical and topographical account of North Britain, from the most ancient to the present times. Vol. I. Paisley, 1887.
Khenderson I. Pikty. Tainstvennye voiny drevney Shotlandii. M., 2004.
Low A. The History of Scotland from the Earliest Period to the Middle of the Ninth Century. Edinburgh, 1826.
Ritchie A. Perceptions of the Picts: from Euhemenius to John Buchan. Inverness, 1994.
Ferguson W. George Buchanan and the Picts // Scottish Tradition. 1990/91. Vol. XVI. P. 18–32.
Kidd C. British Identities before Nationalism: Ethnicity and Nationhood in the Atlantic World, 1600-1800. Cambridge, 2006.
Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia (edit. by Koch J.T.). Vol. II. Santa Barbara and Oxford, 2006.
Innes T. A Critical Essay on the Ancient Inhabitants of the Northern Parts of Britain. Edinburgh, 1879.
The Duan Albanach // Chronicles of the Picts, chronicles of the Scots (edit. by Skene W.F.) Edinburgh, 1867. P. 57-65.
Senchus fer n-Alban // Early sources of Scottish history, A.D. 500 to 1286 (trans. by Anderson A.O.). Vol. I. Edinburgh, 1922. P. cl-cliii.
The Oxford Companion to Scottish History (edit. by Lynch M.). Oxford. 2007.
The Annals of Tigernach (edit. by Stokes W.). P., 1895.
Mason R.A. Scotching the Brut: Politics, History and National Myth in Sixteenth-Century Britain // Scotland and England, 1286-1815 (edit. by R. Mason). Edinburgh, 1987. P. 60-84.
Correct link to this article:
just copy this link to clipboard