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Chernovitskaya Yu.V. The causes for human aggression biological or social prerequisites?

Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2016-7 in rubric "Reverence for life", pages 1037-1044.

Resume: The author turns attention to one of the most acute problems of mankind a problem of violence. At the same time, the author notes that the questions of origin, causes, control and prevention of human aggression just recently became a subject for s scientific research. Using a method of comparative analysis, this work examines three most significant theories of emergence of human aggression. Aggression as instinctive behavior is being studied from the positions psychoanalytic approach (S. Freud, etc.) and evolutionary approach. The latter includes ethological approach (K. Lorentz, N. Tinbergen, etc.), a hunting hypothesis (R. Ardri, D. Morris, etc.), and sociobiological approach (E. Wilson, R. Trivers, etc.). These approaches lean towards the fact that aggression has a biological, instinctive basis, in other words, aggression is an inherent instinct. The theory of motivation explains aggression as feeling of frustration (J. Dollard, N. Miller L. Berkowitz, etc.). Theories that state there is a priority of influence of the social upon the natural (theories of social learning (A.Bandura, etc.) and social influence (J. Tedeshchi, etc.)) prove that namely social environment encourages and stimulates aggression. The author criticizes theories of human aggression and comes to a conclusion that the growth of moral responsibility for the consequences of their actions did not provide guarantees that the mankind will not destroy itself. Moral restrictions, regulations of global ethics are far behind the technological progress. A qualitatively new methodology is required.

Keywords: social learning theory, frustration theory, instinctive behavior, social, natural, aggressiveness, aggression, social influence theory, violence, responsibility

DOI: 10.7256/1999-2793.2016.7.16230

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