Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2016-5 in rubric "Editor-in-Chief's column", pages 625-628.
Resume: This article is dedicated to the 160th anniversary of Sigmund Freud. On May 6, 1856 the world welcome one of the most renowned and successful researchers of human psychics Sigmund Freud. His name was firmly written into psychology, philosophy, and medicine. Paradoxicality of this consists in the fact that this person was not a physician in natural sense although he received medical education. Moreover, he was not a philosopher, and according to the word of Carl Jung, he did not possess a necessary philosophical competence, and had a rather skeptical attitude towards this area of knowledge. But at the same time, Freud became a founder of an independent philosophical direction – psychoanalysis. None of the philosophical direction of the previous century has passed by this name. Many philosophers rejected his ideas, but most often they continued to expand his discoveries. Freud was not a psychologist, but his name is associated with a radical reformation within the humanitarian knowledge – emergence of one of the five directions of the world psychology. As a clinical psychologist, he introduced into the world practice the principles of healing, which gained universal recognition. The author bases on the principle of historicism, attempting to evaluate Freud’s contribution into the humanitarian cognition, according to the impact of his doctrine upon the modern science and culture. The article attempts to demonstrate the importance of Freud’s heritage for many areas of modern science, as well as to reveal the greatness and limitation of his doctrine, considering the discoveries that gained recognition in the late XX – early XXI century. Quite often we can hear that Freud’s doctrine has outlived itself. In this regard, we should note the approach of J. Lacan, who was trying to preserve the psychoanalytical tradition which was under a threat in the middle of XX century. The author focuses his attention on the main achievements of Freud’s concept/
Keywords: Psychology of the masses, Dreams, Illusion, Personality, Psychosexual development, Psychics, Culture, Unconscious, Psychology, Philosophy
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