'Music, Silence and Noise Music by John Cage: the Principles of Integration of Moise Into Music Composition' Culture and Art nbpublish.com
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Petrov V.O. Music, Silence and Noise Music by John Cage: the Principles of Integration of Moise Into Music Composition

Published in journal "Culture and Art", 2015-5 in rubric "Question at hand", pages 479-490.

Resume: As it is well-known, in 1913 an Italian composer, artist and poet Luigi Russolo, being influenced by the futurists of those times, wrote his manifesto "The Art of Noises". Among the performers and all "advanced" cultural figures of those times the manifesto introduced the view that the musical sound could be created by anything, first of all, all kinds of machines and devices, and the sound could also be a growling, scream, whisper, roar, rumble, etc. Noise and aesthetics of noise had a special influence on the creative heritage of one of the most radical innovators in music of the XXth century, American composer John Cage who denied tonation in general and used only the noise in his musical compositions.On his way to the integration of noise into music, Cage followed the following four principles: 1) creation of a so-called prepared piano, 2) invention of new instruments or involvement of instruments that had never been used in music before, as well as a non-traditional use of human voice; 3) implementation ofelectronic means of sound transmission (computers or concrete music), 4) complete replacement of music with noises. The methodology of the research is based on the integrated approach to such macro-terms as "noise in music" and "musical silence" introduced and first used by John Cage. The author has also used the analytical method for the analysis of specific works created by the composer. In conclusion, the author notesthat being the brightest innovator in music, John Cage created a completely new world inside himself and his own philosophy. Later Cage introduced that world to the audience. Someone accepted his innovations, ideas and concepts and someone rejected them, but in any case, John Cage made an important breakthrough in understanding the phenomenon of music and answering the universal question 'What is music?'. What if music is just the Noise indeed?

Keywords: new musical instruments, Luigi Russolo, noise, John Cage, synthesis of arts, silence, music, prepared piano, phonetics, aesthetics

DOI: 10.7256/2222-1956.2015.5.16026

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