Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2015-3 in rubric "Editor-in-Chief's column", pages 337-341.
Resume: Constructing man is a paranoid desire of out time. It appears that a human being can be modelled. Like in a song, «I made you from what there was». But post-modernists do not remove from the agenda the problem of human wholeness. The main point is different: if man is not «disintegrated», the collected image of man will display its well-known conventionality, stereotyped nature. And this is no good. Human fragments should acquire some plasticity, readiness for unexpected combinations. A character that for many centuries was described as individuality makes way for a «dividual», an autonomous fragmentary entity. In this article, the author continues critical analysis of human typology developed by E.Spranger as an expression of some human value or another. The German scholar believed that transformation of education would discover this potential. But the value orientation that engenders this character has proven to be more essential.The author uses methods and principles of philosophical anthropology. He takes into account many attempts at creating classifications of human characters. He analyzes psychological conceptions, too. In particular, the characterology of E. Spranger is compared with the typology of social characters offered by E. Fromm.Spranger’s characterology becomes a subject of critical analysis for the first type in Russian literature. The author points to the arbitrariness of the principle from which the German philosopher proceeds when he describes various spiritual attitudes underlying some way of life or another. As a rule, one of such attitudes prevails in activities of a particular individual. Singling out fundamental values, to which a human being is oriented in his behaviour and which finally predetermine him, Spranger does not take into account that in each of these spheres there can often be found individuals with directly opposite psychic properties and specific traits. In the article, his principle is characterized as abstract. The article shows that analysis of market orientation by E. Fromm gives a more detailed understanding of the economic man.
Keywords: personality, culture, calculation, exchange of goods, utility, labour, market orientation, economic man, spirituality, depersonalization
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