Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2014-10 in rubric "Philosophy and culture", pages 1514-1518.
Resume: This is the afterword to the translation of the article written by an American sociologist and cultural philosopher Edward Tiryakian ‘Three metacultures of modernity: Cristian, Gnostic, Chthonic’. The author of the afterword analyzes views of an American scientist on the role of religion in a modern society. He also provides an insight into the content and problem points of his concept of three metacultures and discusses functional features of religious metacultures of Christianity, Gnosticism and Paganism, relations of ‘unorthodox’ religious views to the Orthodox Christian metaculture that caused internal contradictions in the Western civilization and made it susceptible to changes. The author analyzes philosophical and anthropological aspects of Edward Tiryakian’s concept. According to Edward Tiryakian, dynamics and variety of different cultures I a modern society should be viewed from the point of view the cultural-historical, functional-conceptual and structural-analytical approaches. Based on the author of the present article, the concept of three metacultures offered by Edward Tiryakian has certain limits because it does not take into account all the variety of religious and cultural movements (in particular, Manichaeism and Hermeticism) and completely ignores the secular culture with all its natural scientific, social and historical elements. Tiryakian’s analysis of three metacultures is clearly based on philosophical and anthropological grounds. Accordig to Tiryakian, human is an element of the socio-cultural structure and actor of the socio-cultural development, this is the peculiarity of his dual nature when the physical is accompanied with the social. Culturalization has the main meaning for formation and development of human nature. Accompanied by the process of socialization, culturalization creates the two main aspects of the secondary, social-historical nature of human, but at the same time it has an essential impact on the primary, physical nature of human. Under the influence of the socio-cultural environment, particular manifestations of human physicality appear. An individual identifies himself with a particular metaculture and at the same time gets involved into contradictory relations between different metacultures.
Keywords: Edward Tiryakian, society of post-modern, metaculture, Christianity, Gnosticism, paganism, unorthodox religious views, human nature, culturalization, identification.
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