Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2014-10 in rubric "Editor-in-Chief's column", pages 1389-1392.
Resume: According to the author of the article, the main terms of the theory of civilization should be better studied analytically. In our academic literature this concept has replaced Marx’s division of history into historical periods according to the principle of social formation. However, social philosophers still haven’t reached an agreement on a single issue regarding the historical process of civilization development. For a long time civilization was understood as a transfer from savagery and barbarism to a human lifestyle. However, this opposition of barbarism to civilization raises many questions. One of them is, what barbarism is and why it managed to survive for so many years and still shows itself as the other side of civilization. Researchers haven’t clarified yet what this opposition means but start to compare different civilizations. The author bases his article o the methods of historical analysis and uses approaches of the comparative studies. When analyzing the problems under research, he appeals to the main achievements of social philosophy. He also uses the principles of philosophical understanding of human. The novelty of the article is in raising a whole number of polemic issues. The author carries out a critical evaluation of the most popular definitions of barbarism and civilization. He also tries to expand the criteria for defining particular civilizations. In this article the critics of Eurocentrism are accompanied with the analysis of the newest tends in cultural consciousness of the East. Orientalism is compared to Occidentalism. The author also analyzes the problems of the all-planet development of the humankind.
Keywords: culture, civilization, barbarism, savagery, civilization, world religions, Eurocentrism, Occidentalism, rationalism, humanism.
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