Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2014-7 in rubric "Editor-in-Chief's column", pages 939-942.
Resume: The author of the article notes that the sides of human existence mean the kind of life styles and human activities that people can’t live without. In particular, labor has always accompanied human existence. However, the role of labor is singular for each society and depends on the values of each particular culture. In the European history, for example, labor has been glorified and appraised in poems but at the same time the role of labor has been underestimated and his importance for human existence has been denied. The author of the present article bases himself on the concept of labor offered by Karl Marx, in particular, his idea about labor being a true reflection of human nature. Arguing with Marx’ conclusions, the author, at the same time, shows how popular his ideas have been as well as his critics of the capital by using the two modes of human existence — to be or to have. The author also tries to discover the natural and social grounds of labor as a special type of human activity. To study the issue the author uses historical research methods. Pavel Gurevich describes how the concept of the genesis and development of labor as a specific activity was created in the history of European philosophy. The author also provides a comparative analysis of the theories of labor offered by Marx, Jaspers and Arendt. The novelty of the article is in the author’s intention to describe labor as a side of human existence and therefore underline a special role of natural and social grounds in the genesis of labor activity. The author also offers a hypothesis that labor is not always a necessary side of human existence but only under certain conditions described in the article.
Keywords: philosophy, human existence, human, human nature, labor, nature, transcendence, possession, function, sides of human existence.
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