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Muraschenkova, N.V., Gritsenko, V.V. Extremism as a social and psychological matter.

Published in journal "National Security / nota bene", 2014-2 in rubric "Person and citizen within security systems", pages 338-350.

Resume: The object of study in this article is extremism as social and psychological phenomenon. The goal of the article is to provide theoretical analysis of social and psychological nature of extremism, as well as establishing the definition of extremism from the standpoint of social-psychological approach. The authors single out a complex of psychological causes, serving as the basis for extremism and being psychological determining factors for the formation of extremist conscience and behavior of a person (pronounced extremity of a person in combination with moral nihilism, lack of basic trust to the world, xenophobia and aggression), they provide their own definition of extremism. The methodological basis for the studies includes complex and systemic approaches, which are presented in Russian psychological studies. Extremism as a social and psychological matter is regarded within the framework of studying psychology of evil and violence, and it is included into the problem field of the psychological security as a novel scientific direction in the Russian psychological studies. The methods of studies include theoretical analysis, synthesis and generalization. According to the definition given by the authors extremism as a social and psychological matter manifesting itself at the level of person as a subject of social relation is a type of violence, aimed purposeful aggressive behavior of a person (expressed by language or acts) towards another person or social group, which is related to the violation of the basic trust to the world and motivated by the personal superiority ideology, intolerance and xenophobia towards the object of violence. The formulated definition shows the possibilities and directions for the further empiric studies in the sphere of extremism psychology, and its results are important from the standpoint of efficient organization of psychological prophylactics and psychological correction of extremist manifestations in various age and social groups.

Keywords: extremism, social and psychological approach, violence, extremist ideology, extremity, moral nihilism, basic sense of trust, hostility, xenophobia, aggression.

DOI: 10.7256/2073-8560.2014.2.10881

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