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Grudtsyna, L.Y., Lagutkin, A.V. Legal problems regarding recognition of proprietary titles to underground construction objects in Russia.

Published in journal "Administrative and municipal law", 2014-5 in rubric "ADMINISTRATIVE AND MUNICIPAL LAW AND PROPERTY LAW", pages 461-468.

Resume: The object of studies in this article involves social relations regarding legal regulation of recognition of proprietary title (including private property) to the underground construction objects in Russia, and first of all in its megalopolises. Before mining mineral resources, there is need for the survey and development of the deposit of mineral resources (open, underground, combined, or underwater means). Development of deposit with the open method is implemented from the land and includes strip mining and actual mining. Development by underground means includes underground digging, such as crossing, galleries, pit shafts, etc. The underground development mostly concerns preparatory work, excavation support, actual mining. However, without exploring the underground territories, which is implemented by the constructors of underground objects (underground constructions) it is not possible to mine mineral resources. In fact, an investor (a business) invests large money to preliminary and detailed exploration, including digging, use of deep pits, shallow mines and pit shafts, then underground drill holes, etc. All of those seemingly complementary preparatory important technological works guarantee the success in mining and excavation of mineral resources from the subsoil. The result of these preparatory technological works is quite specific. Object of underground construction serving the shafts and mines are built underground and they are in use for many years (usually the entire term of existence of the mining enterprise. They include cameras, tunnels (for transportation, utilities, special purpose, etc.), shaft insets, crosses, air pits, etc. All of these objects for the purpose of their more caring and economic use may be privatized and registered as property of natural persons and legal entities, which have built them and are using them. Another argument in favor of introduction of the regime of private property for underground buildings and constructions is the constant need for their repair and technical maintenance (including the technology for the lengthening of the life cycle of the used underground constructions), and only the owners would provide for them. The state often fails to efficiently manage underground objects, which due to their complicated character, working conditions and difficulties in access require scientifically substantiated and even unique repair technologies, and the state represented by its competent bodies often does not adequately provide for them. The article contains arguments in favor of legislative regulation of the possibility to privatize (to obtain public registration of property title) the objects of underground constructions in general, and, more specifically, in the megalopolises. The most efficient development of underground territory in the future shall be possible with the union between state and business, for which there shall be a legalized opportunity to register proprietary title to the underground construction objects, which shall serve as a sensible argument in favor of economic and careful attitude of the geological resources of our planet.

Keywords: geological resources, underground construction, subsoil, natural resources, mineral resources, undergrounds territory, capital underworking, private property, environment, business.

DOI: 10.7256/1999-2807.2014.5.11372

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