'Adaptive Capabilities of the Russian National School in Emigration (the Case Study of the Shumen Gymnasium in Bulgaria (1922 to 1934)' Pedagogy and education nbpublish.com
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Schuplenkov, O. V. Adaptive Capabilities of the Russian National School in Emigration (the Case Study of the Shumen Gymnasium in Bulgaria (1922 to 1934)

Published in journal "Pedagogy and education", 2013-4 in rubric "Types of education", pages 296-316.

Resume: Shumen Gymnasium (19221934) that was relocated from Constantinople to Bulgaria and due to the teaching talent and distinguished organizing skills of the first director A. Beyer (19221928) took the first place among all secondary schools in Bulgaria not only in the number of students but also in the organization of education and up-bringing. It was quite a challenge because it was the school for young men of different age who overcame the civil war. Despite poverty, poor food, strict schedule and etc., graduates of the Gymnasium who had problems socializing in a foreign environment recalled years spent there as the happiest years in their life. Good evidence to that is their letters that were addressed to the Gymnasium teachers and mentors and are kept at State Archive of the Russian Federation now. These letters provide an insight into how Russian emigrants lived in Bulgaria. Throughout many centuries cultural and language contacts between Russians and Bulgarians have been a unique example of cross pollination. Being one of the six Russian gymnasiums in Bulgaria, the gymnasium in Shumen in the 20s -30s of the XXth century presented a great example of direct cultural and language interaction between Bulgarians and Russians. In many respects Russians appeared to be the most privileged Diaspora in the country. That policy of the Bulgarian government predetermined the uplift of Russian emigration culture. However, the global economic depression at the end of the 20s 30s of the XXth century that came to Bulgaria as well aggravated the situation for Russian emigrants. The government kept to the strict policy of national priority on the labor market and therefore made Russians equal to other foreigners. That lasted till September 1944 and brought many emigrants to poverty. Even though the government continued to help them, it had to limit the financial support and liquidated some emigrant organizations. A new state policy towards Russian emigrants was started at the end of the 1930s. In 1938 the League of Nations declared that the question about Russia emigration was solved. The Nunsen International Office for Refugees was closed and the League of Nations recommended the governments that had accepted Russian emigrants to start the policy aimed at nationalization of Russians. At that point the favorable attitude towards Russians was over and Russians were treated just like other foreigners. Along with the repressions against Russian refugees during the Second World War, the new policy marked the beginning of assimilation of Russians.

Keywords: Beyer, Bulgaria, culture, cultural research, education, Russian emigration, socialization in exile, Shumen Gymnasium, language, language studies.

DOI: 10.7256/2306-434X.2013.4.11760

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