'The History of Forced Labour in Soviet Russia' SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences nbpublish.com
Eng During last 365 days Approved articles: 1880,   Articles in work: 383 Declined articles: 424 

E.V. Sychenko The History of Forced Labour in Soviet Russia

Published in journal "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences", 2013-2 in rubric "History", pages 8-18.

Resume: The article is devoted to the history of forced labour and the realization of the duty to work in Soviet Russia. Duty to work was enshrined in all the Soviet constitutions and thus became a leitmotif for the era. Three main period are emphasized: the period of Military Communism (19181921), the War period, including pre war and post war times (19401948), during the Khrushchev Thaw (19611965), we\\\'ll briefly speak apart about forced labour in GULAG. The author made an analysis of official documents, implementing duty to work, statistic data, researches of contemporary and Soviet scholars. This historical review of forced labour in Russia makes us conclude that obligation to work (not only a moral one but backed by criminal or administrative responsibility) was a distinguishing feature of Soviet labour law. The idea was born even before the Soviet state in the writings of K. Marx and Lenin and existed until the collapse of USSR. During these years the enforcement of the duty to work differed considerably depending on the current needs of the State, of the economic conditions.

Keywords: soviet history, forced labour, labour conscription, Gulag, labour code, parasitism, criminal responsability, mobilization, right for work, obligation to work.

DOI: 10.7256/1339-3057.2013.2.10274

This article can be downloaded freely in PDF format for reading. Download article

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (art.4, 23)
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights ( art. 8)
The European Convention on Human Rights (art. 4),
ILO Forced Labour Convention (No.29)
Art. 3 of the Constitution of the RSFSR in 1918, Art. 9 of the Constitution of the RSFSR in 1925, Art. 12 Constitution of the Soviet Union in 1936, Art. 59 of the Constitution of the RSFSR in 1978. The Russian legal database Consultant Plus.
Second Epistle of St. Paul to the Thessalonians, Ch. 3, Art. 10
Mikhaylovskaya I.B. (1999) Constitututions of the soviet period about the obligations of citizens// Educational workshops of the Moscow Helsinki Group: Sumery of materials / Editor: Bogoraz L.I. Moscow.. Available at: http://hrights.ru/text/bogoraz/ (accessed 20.06.2013) Mikhaylovskaya I.B. Konstitutsii sovetskogo perioda ob obyazannostyakh grazhdan)//Prosvetitelskiye seminary Moskovskoy Khelsinkskoy gruppy: Itogovyy sb. materialov / Sost. Bogoraz L.I. ; Mosk. Khelsink. gruppa; In-t prav cheloveka. M.,1999.
Trotskiy L. (1926) Works.Volume 17, part 1. Moscow-Leningrad, p. 207. Trotskiy L. (1926) Sochineniya. Tom 17, chast 1. Moskva-Leningrad, s. 207.
Lenin V. I. (1929), How to organize the competition?// Newspaper Pravda, 17. Lenin V.I. Kak organizovat sorevnovaniye?// Pravda, 17.
Ilyukhov A.A. (2004) The Soviet model of universal labour in 1918-1922, the / / Workers in Russia: historical experience and current situation /Editor: Churakova D.O Editorial URSS, p. 182-198. Ilyukhov A.A. (2004) Sovetskaya model vseobshchego truda v 19181922 gg. // Rabochiye v Rossii: istoricheskiy opyt i sovremennoye polozheniye / Pod red. Churakova D.O.. M., Editorial URSS, S. 182-198.
Marks K., Engels F.Manifest of Communist party 1848//Marks K., Engels F. Works. V. 4. Moscow., 1955. p. 419459.
Code of labour laws of RSFSR (1918). The Russian legal database Consultant Plus.
Resolution of the Council of Workers\ and Peasants\ Defense On natural labour and cartage conscriptions( "Postanovleniye Soveta Raboche-Krestyanskoy oborony O naturalnoy trudovoy i guzhevoy povinnosti), 19.11.1919.// SU RSFSR. 57. art. 543;
Decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars "On the order of universal labour conscription" (Postanovleniye SNK O poryadke vseobshchey trudovoy povinnosti), 5.02.1920 //SU RSFSR. 8. art. 49. Decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars "On the committees of universal labour conscription ( Postanovleniye SNK O komitetakh po vseobshchey trudovoy povinnosti), 5.02. 1920 // SU RSFSR. 8.-art. 50;
Buryak Y.M.(2009) Labour relations in the early years of Soviet authorities (based on the materials of industrial areas of the Urals)Synopsis of thesis. Izhevsk, p. 17 (Buryak Y.M.(2009) Trudovie otnoshenia v pervie gody sovetskoi vlasti (na materialah promyshlennyh rayonov Urala) Avtoreferat dissertatsii na soiskaniye uchenoy stepeni kandidata istoricheskikh nauk. Izhevsk, S. 17).
Borisova L.V. (2006) Labour relations in Soviet Russia (1918-1924). Moscow, p. 23. Borisova L.V. Trudovyye otnosheniya v sovetskoy Rossii (1918 1924 gg.), M.: 2006. S. 23
Strumilin S.G. (1962) Selected works.( Izbrannyye proizvedeniya). Moscow., 1962. P. 327.
Decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars On the disciplinary courts of comraids (provisions) ( Dekret Soveta Narodnykh Komissarov O rabochikh distsiplinarnykh tovarishcheskikh sudakh ( polozheniye))14.11.1919// Izvestiya VZIK 16.11. 1919,. 257.
Telenkova O.V. (2002) Labour conscription during the Civil War: October 1917-March 1921 (Trudovaya povinnost v gody grazhdanskoy voyny: Oktyabr 1917-mart 1921 ) Synopsis of thesis. Smolensk, or see Borisova L.V. supra note 9, p. 160.
Code of labour laws RSFSR (1922) Russian legal database Consultant plus.
Alexander Solzhenitsyn The The GULAG Archipelago Two (1918-1956: An Experiment in Literary Investigation III-IV),p. 71 http://archive.org/stream/The GULAG_Archipelago_II#page/n1/mode/2up
Gorkiy M. Pervyy opyt // Belomorsko-Baltiyskiy Kanal imeni Stalina. Istoriya stroitelstva / pod red. M. Gorkogo, L. Averbakha, S. Firina. M., 1998. S. 609610..
Prikaz OGPU 130/63 ot 25.04.1930, SU SSSR, 1930. 22. . 248, from October 1930 the name was changed for famous THE GULAG.
Borodkin L.I. Ob effektivnosti lagernoy ekonomiki: stimulirovaniye truda v rannem THE GULAGe // Mobilizatsionnaya model ekonomiki: istoricheskiy opyt Rossii XX veka: sbornik materialov vserossiyskoy nauchnoy konferentsii. 2009. S. 31
GULAG: SOVIET PRISON CAMPS AND THEIR LEGACY By David Hosford, Pamela Kachurin and Thomas Lamont//A Project of the National Park Service and the National Resource Center for Russian, East European and Central Asian Studies, Harvard University. Available at: http://gulaghistory.org/nps/downloads/gulag-curriculum.pdf
CEC and Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR Resolution "On the protection of property of state-owned enterprises, collective farms (kolhoz) and cooperatives and public (socialist) property strengthening" issued on August 7, 1932 (Pravda, 8 08.1932)
J. Arch Getty, Gabor T. Rettersporn, Viktor N. Zemkov, Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-war Years: a First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence,The American Historical Review, v. 98 (Oct \93).
L.I.Borodkin, S.Ertts, The structure and stimulation of forced labor in the Gulag: Norillag, late 30s-early 50s (Struktura i stimulirovaniye prinuditelnogo truda v GULAGe: Norillag, konets 30kh-nachalo 50kh gg.)// Ekomicheskaya istoria: Yearbook 2003, Moscow, 2004. P.177-233
Garanzha S.A. The Corrective labor policy of the Soviet State in 1917-1934 (Ispravitelno-trudovaya politika Sovetskogo gosudarstva): Synopsis of thesis. Moscow, 2012, p. 13.
Yakovlev B., Burzov A., Concentration Camps in the USSR. Institute for the Study of the History and Culture of the USSR, Munich, 1955. Available in Russian at: http://lib.ru/POLITOLOG/lageri.txt (accessed 2.11.2013).
Kizny, (2004) Gulag: Life and Death Inside the Soviet Concentration Camps. N.Y: Firefly. p. 38
Schwartz S. The system of slave labor in the Soviet Union, "Sozialistichesky vestnik", No.5 (644), 1951, pp. 101-103.
Sokolov A. Forced labor in the Soviet economy. 1930-mid 1950s . / / Gulag: forced labor economics . Moscow, 2005, p. 22 , 27
Solomon M. Schwarz (1952) Labour in the Soviet Union Praeger, p. 110
Decree of the Presidium or the Supreme Soviet "On the transition to an eight hour work day, a seven day work week, and the prohibition of voluntary departures of workers from enterprises and institutions." 26.06.1940. Izvestiia, June 27, 1940
Olga Kucherenko (2012) State v. Danila Kuzmich: Soviet Desertion Laws and Industrial Child Labour during World War II// The Russian Review Volume 71, Issue 3, P. 392, 401. As writes Olga Kucherenko the plan of mobilizing labour concerned even adolescents, as according Decree of Supreme Soviet About the state labour reserves of the USSR October 2, 1940, the initial plan was to mobilize eight hundred thousand adolescents.
Seregina L.V. (2010) Labour law in the years of the Great Patriotic War / / "Journal of Russian Law", 2010, N 8. Seregina L.V. Trudovoye pravo v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny //"Zhurnal rossiyskogo prava", 2010, N 8.
Donald Filtzer (2002) Soviet Workers and De-Stalinization: The Consolidation of the Modern System of Soviet Production Relations, 1953-1964. Cambridge University Press, P. 37.
Litvin A. Russian historiography of the Great Terror( Rossiyskaya istoriografiya bolshogo terror) // Journal "Istoriya" 33/1999).
Sheila Fitzpatrick (2006) Social Parasites: How Tramps, Idle Youth, and Busy Entrepreneurs Impeded the Soviet March to Communism," Cahiers du monde russe et sovietique 47:1-2, p. 377-408.
Bogomolov A. (2012) All parasites and dissidents beyond 101th kilometer( Vseh tuneyadzev I dissidentov za 101 kilometr)//Newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda 12.12.2012, available at: http://www.kp.ru/daily/25957/2898101/ (accessed on 30.05.2013).
Zhirnov E. Instill useful fear (Vnushit polezny strah) // Journal "Kommersant vlast", 16 (920), 25.04.2011 available at : http://www.kommersant.ru/doc/1618579 , accessed on 30.05.2013).
Losev Lev (2008) Josef Brodsij. Molodaya gvardia. Moscow.
Slobodkin Y.M. (1980) The liability of persons conducting anti-social parasitic way of life / / Jurisprudence, 3. P. 78-81. SlobodkinY. M . (1980) Otvetstvennost lits , vedushchikh antiobshchestvennyy paraziticheskiy obraz zhizni / / Pravovedeniye .-1980 .- 3 .-S . 78-81 .
Resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR adopted 13 December 1984 "On the application of Article 209 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR.
Pavlov V. (1985) Questions of criminal responsibility for parasitic way of life / / Jurisprudence. Number 5. P. 23 28, Pavlov V . G . (1985) Voprosy ugolovnoy otvetstvennosti za vedeniye paraziticheskogo obraza zhizni / / Pravovedeniye . 5 . S. 23 28.
Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR 03.02.1987 N 136 "On measures on improvement of work of district inspectors of Militia".
Ogorodnikov V. V. (1988) Enhance the contribution of district inspectors of militia to combating crime and ensuring public safety (Povisit vklad uchastkovyh inspektorov milizii v borbu s prestupnostiu I obespechenie ohrany obshestvennogo poryadka ) Issues of improvement of work of district inspectors of militia. Collection. (Voprosy sovershenstvovaniya deyatelnosti uchastkovykh inspektorov militsii: Sbornik). Moscow, GUOOP MVD SSSR, VNII MVD SSSR, p. 88
Constitucion Espanola 1978, Boletin Oficial del Estado num. 311, de 29 de diciembre de 1978.
Italian constitution 1947 Gazzetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana n. 298, edizione straordinaria, del 27 dicembre 1947

Correct link to this article:
just copy this link to clipboard