Formation and development of tier 2 air hubs
// Trends and management. – 2016. – ¹ 3.
– P. 303-313.
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Abstract: The object of this research is the tier 2 air cargo hubs. In examining the most efficiently functioning air hubs, the author analyzed the key factors that defined the progress in their development and presented the conclusions and their generalizing assessments. Analysis was conducted on the existing cases of formation and development of tier 2 hubs, presenting a short list of airports that have demonstrated the most substantial spike in development. Among them are: Istanbul Atatürk Airport (Turkey), Liège Airport (Belgium), São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport (Brazil), and Soekarno–Hatta International Airport (Indonesia). The key criterion for determining the tier 2 air hubs was the volume of cargo transferred, which ranged between 650-790 million tons and was distinguished by a high dynamic of growth. The author’s contribution into the research of this topic consists in the development of an original innovative methodology for studying the term “tier 2 hub” and determination of criteria of the assessment of their efficiency. The author concludes that in addition to advantageous geographical location of the countries, the key factors of rapid development and transformation of airports into tier 2 air cargo hubs are the following: 1) efficient strategy for the airport with active involvement of direct foreign investments and modernization of infrastructure; 2) hosting major international events in the country; 3) partnership with major cargo companies; 4) presence of institutional foundation for multilateral cooperation (The Treaty on Open Skies); 5) attraction of highly qualified personnel and cooperation with the largest IT companies.
Keywords: Airport infrastructure, Geographical location, Air terminal, International airport, Rapid modernization, Business model, Investments, Open skies, Cargo throughput, Tier 2 air hubs
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International water agreements
// Trends and management. – 2016. – ¹ 1.
– P. 114-121.
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Abstract: This article explores the possibility for formation of global fresh water market. For this purpose an analysis of international water agreements executed on the regional level is being conducted. The growing deficit of fresh water forces countries that experience issues with water availability to make water deals with countries that possess sufficient potential of water resources. The work explores the influence of the geographical factor and means of transportation (technical factor) upon the price formation in water deals. The author concludes that the fresh water market on the regional level is already actively functioning and will continue to develop. However, a large scale trade of water would unlikely receive further development in the near future, since the current international water legislation does not promote pure sale of water (i.e. sale of just water). But in a long term prospects, with growing demand for water, the currently existing groundwork of regional water market could transform into global market of fresh water.
Keywords: International relations, Water deficit, Transboundary rivers, Global economy, Geographical factor, Transportation, Logistics, Pricing, Water deals, Fresh water market
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