Samashev Z., Chotbaev A.E., Kurganov N.S., Pankin D.V., Povolotskaya A.V., Kurochkin A.V., Kitov E.P., Kitova A.O..
Natural scientific methods in exploration of reference monuments belonging to Saka culture in the Kazakh Altai
// SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. – 2020. – № 4.
– P. 1-10.
Read the article
Abstract: This article examines the ancient gold jewelry with inlay, which were discovered in the process of archeological excavations of grave sites located on the Eleke Sazy Plateau, Tarbagatay Ridge in the East of Kazakhstan in the burial of a notable young man, conducted in summer of 2018. It is attributed to Saka culture, and dates back to approximately VIII – VII centuries BC. Among the objects, were found garments embroidered with gold, quiver with arrows, and bronze dagger in gold scabbard. This work examines the golden scabbard for the dagger. The scabbard consists of several parts attached to the wooden base and decorated with gold seeds and inlay. The inlay did not survive in many of the discovered items, but the traces of it remain. In the process of degradation, some jewels have changed their color, and currently look grey. Micro-samples for the research were selected from the crumbling fragments of inlay, acquired during restoration of the artifact. Modern natural scientific methods give broader opportunities for studying the material component of the objects of cultural heritage. Determination of composition of the object with most damage substantiates the reconstruction. In some cases, despite severe damage, the identification procedure can be conducted on the basis of the remaining particles, the size of which does not exceed tens of microns. Within the framework this work, the author examined the possibility for selection of such micro-samples with subsequent identification. The use of the Raman spectroscopic technique allows further examination of the selected micro-samples. Complementary methods of research include the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for studying the organic substances the inlay was attached to.
Keywords: Methods of Natural Science, Scythians, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, lazurite, jewelry, inlay, Saka tribes, Kazakh Altai, anthropology
Nigmatova S. On the reconstruction of the climate and the characteristics of the economic and cultural type of the ancient nomads of the Kazakh Altai based on palynology. Nomads of the Kazakh steppes: ethnological and sociocultural processes and contacts in Eurasia of the Scythian-Saka era. Materials of International Conference. Astana. 2008. P. 347–349. (In Rus.).
Kashkinbaev K.A. Berel horses. The paleopathological aspect of the study. Materials and researches of the Kazakh Archaeology. Astana, 2013. P.378 (In Rus.)
Kosintsev P., Samashev Z. Berel horses. Morphological research// Materials and researches of the Kazakh Archaeology. Astana: Pub. FIA. 2014. N5. P.386. (In Rus.)
Baizhanov M.Kh., Berkynbai O., Samashev Z. (2000) Parasites found in human remains//Herald of the National Centre of Agrarian Researches. N.7.P.49-51 (In Kaz)
Dzisyuk N.V. (2003) Comparative molecular genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA polymorphism of modern Kazakh populations and ancient people from the Berel necropo
Bolshekaraganskaya Valley – the Proto-Indo-European landmark of ancient civilization
// SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. – 2019. – № 3.
– P. 14-23.
Read the article
Abstract: The object of this research is the area of formation of the fortified settlements of the Bronze Age in South Ural – Bolshekaraganskaya Valley and the territory within the boundaries of Chelyabinsk Oblast adjacent to it. The subject of this research is the territorial-geographical complexes and historical-theoretical approaches towards studying the fortified settlements of ancient Ural in the dynamics of their development. The author meticulously examines such aspects of the topic as formation of the center and core of settlement structure of the Bronze Age in the basing of Bolshaya Karaganka River, which joins the Ural River, in the southern part Chelyabinskaya Oblast, territory also known as Arkaimskaya Valley. Special attention is given to localization and layer wise fixation of the fortified settlements, as well as typology of their morphogenesis. Research methodology is built on the theory of historical-architectural comparativism and comparative analysis of patterns of the fortified settlements in their layer wise fixation. The main conclusion is defined by the most comprehensive review of the typology of fortified settlements of South Ural of the Bronze Age. The analysis of planning analogues determined the typological and morphological similarity of the objects, continuity of building traditions in territories with the development town planning syste4ms of Middle Asia. The author provides certain clarifications in determination of the unique morphology of the patterns of fortified settlements, practically first known in history at the time of study, production-housing fortification constructs with the dominant metallurgical function. The research results suggest the origin of Sintashtinsko-Petrovsky town-forming fortification system in correspondence with the ancient architectural and urban traditions in Middle Asia at the early development stages of Indo-European states.
Keywords: historical heritage, ancient civilization, Bronze Age, Proto-Indo-European frontier, Sintashta, Ancient Ural, Bolshekaraganskaya Valley, fortified settlements, planning structures, settlement systems
Aleksashenko N. A., Gening V. F., Gusetsova T. M., [i dr.] Raboty v zone Bredinskogo vodokhranilishcha: Arkheologicheskiy otchet za 1972 g. M.: Nauka,1973. 125 s.
Batanina I. M. Novaya krepost' Strany gorodov // Nauka Urala. 2004. № 15. S. 33 34.
Bakhshiev I. I., Nasretdinov R. R. Nekotorye itogi issledovaniy 2015–2016 gg. na poselenii Ulak-1 v Bashkirskom Zaural'e // Istoriko-kul'turnye protsessy na Yuzhnom Urale v epokhu pozdney bronzy: sovremennye problemy izucheniya i sokhraneniya kul'turnogo naslediya: mat-ly Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf., posvyashch. 70-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya N.G. Rutto. Ufa: Dialog, 2016. S. 64–87.
Vinogradov N. B. Khronologiya, soderzhanie i kul'turnaya prinadlezhnost' pamyatnikov sintashtinskogo tipa bronzovogo veka v Yuzhnom Zaural'e // Vestn. Chelyab. gos. ped. in.-ta. 1995. № 1. S. 64–66.
Gening V.F., Zdanovich G.B., Gening V.V. Sintashta: Arkheologicheskie pamyatniki ariyskikh plemen Uralo.-Kazakhstanskikh stepey: v 2 ch. Chelyabinsk: Yuzh.-Ural. kn. izd-vo, 1992. Ch. 1. 408 s.
Epimakhov A. V., Chuev N. I. Abashevsk