The Constitutionality of Legal Measures During the Spread of COVID-19
// Politics and Society. – 2023. – № 1.
– P. 21-32.
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Abstract: The emergence of a novel coronavirus infection posed a major challenge to the global community and necessitated urgent and extraordinary measures to minimize the consequences of the pandemic. In the history of modern Russia, this was the first time a national emergency had occurred. Under such circumstances, the State needed an emergency response that also involved a regulatory mechanism. Of course, the regime of legal regulation in emergency situations has significant differences from everyday legal regulation. The author examines in detail the issue of constitutional and legal regulation of emergencies of this kind and analyzes and correlates it with actual legal regulation. Peculiarities of public authorities' organizational activity in pandemic conditions are investigated. Particular attention is paid to human rights during the spread of COVID-19. The author concludes that rather than applying the existing and well-defined regulations outlined in the Federal Constitutional Law "About the State of Emergency" from May 30, 2001 (¹ 3-FKZ), which stipulates the implementation of a state of emergency throughout the country or in specific areas, the ruling authorities have opted for an alternative legal approach. This decision has resulted in a swift modification of the emergency legislation, with its own set of consequences. The main problem, in the author's opinion, lies in the misapplication of the provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, since from the systematic and interrelated interpretation of Articles 55 and 56 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation follows that they regulate the same social relations. However, article 56, unlike article 55, has special grounds for the application, so the principle of lex specialis derogate legi generali should be applied to them—that is, preference should be given to a special norm. In addition, the author proposes the adoption of a single legal act that would unify the different types of emergency situations and provide systematic and orderly legal regulation.
Keywords: pandemic, high alert, state of emergency, restriction of rights, emergency situation, COVID-19, Constitutionalism, human rights, crisis situation, emergency laws
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