Conventional Regulation of Relations related to multiple and dual Citizenship
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2022. – № 3.
– P. 15-24.
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Abstract: The subject of the study is the conventional regulation of relations arising in connection with multiple and dual citizenship. The emphasis in the modern international regulation of issues of dual and/or multiple citizenship is generated by the progressive increase in actual states when a person has two or more nationalities, which affects the interests of several States. Such a phenomenon is accompanied by the emergence of a wide range of problems requiring interstate interaction, which, as a rule, is expressed in the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral treaties on bi- and polypatrism. Such treaties concluded within the framework of modern international law reflect either the negative attitude of the signatory States towards dual and multiple citizenship, or the desire of States to find relevant ways to eliminate the consequences of these phenomena, which are often caused by disputes between States. The article examines the practice of conventional resolution of problems caused by the presence of bi- and poly-patrid status, the changed vectors of the settlement of issues of dual and multiple citizenship, as well as priority areas of modern international law in this area. The article concludes that bilateral cooperation in the field of bipatrism is more effective, which nevertheless will not solve the problem of dual and multiple citizenship at the global level. In addition, the conclusion of a universal international agreement on bi- and polypatrism also does not seem to be an effective means of resolving disputes arising due to significant economic, political, ethno-cultural, historical and legal differences between States, in particular in matters of regulating citizenship. The author considers it necessary to develop new approaches to ensure greater effectiveness of the mechanism of international legal regulation of bi- and polypatrism.
Keywords: multiple citizenship, international law, jus sanguini, jus soli, polypatrism, bipatrism, dual citizenship, citizenship, international treaties, diplomatic protection
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The policy of the Russian Federation and Georgia in the Black Sea region: international legal aspects
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2022. – № 2.
– P. 10-19.
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Abstract: The geopolitical feature of the Black Sea region is its "cross" position, since it is here that the interests of not just neighboring states meet, but also western and eastern religious, and broader cultural traditions. The territorial location of the Black Sea makes it an important strategic zone at the intersection of the borders of Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East. The region, which has significant potential for economic development, has traditionally been a sphere of intersection of interests of both maritime powers and countries seeking to gain influence in this zone by establishing control over them.This article is devoted to the problem of relations between Russia and Georgia in this region, analyzed by the author from an international legal perspective. The basis of the study of the potentially high conflictogenicity of the Black Sea zone is currently an appeal to the history of the issue, which allows us to reveal the cause-and-effect relationships of the confrontation between countries for the possession of those benefits to which domination in the region opens access. The article examines the relations between Russia and Georgia over the Black Sea in the context of the Georgian side's interactions with the West, in particular with the European Union and NATO. The author draws an important conclusion that the deterioration of relations between Georgia and Russia was a step-by-step process that began after the collapse of the Soviet Union and has been going on up to the present time, when it reached its highest point. Determining the prospects for the development of bilateral relations is of great importance due to the fact that conflicts with Russia, which is a key force in the region, can have a negative impact not only on trade and economic relations between the countries, but also on security policy.
Keywords: GUAM, geopolitics, international relations, international treaties, Black Sea region, European Union, NATO, Russia, Georgia, maritime law
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On ensuring stable natural gas supplies in China and Japan
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2022. – № 1.
– P. 34-45.
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Abstract: China and Japan are the two largest importers of natural gas in the world. Both countries have accelerated the reform of domestic natural gas markets and the establishment of domestic natural gas trading centers (natural gas hubs) in order to achieve carbon neutrality goals and ensure the security of domestic natural gas supplies. The conclusion of short- and medium-term contracts for the supply of liquefied natural gas (LNG) affected the execution of long-term contracts, the prices of which were tied to JCC. As a result, Chinese and Japanese natural gas buyers began to demand that international natural gas sellers, including Russia, use hub market prices.
The article analyzes measures to ensure the security of natural gas supplies and reforms of domestic natural gas markets in China and Japan. The interrelations, advantages and disadvantages of long-term, short-term and spot contracts are highlighted. Based on the analysis of the court decision in the case of GNA v. Atlantic LNG, the conclusions of international arbitration practice on price revision clauses are summarized.
The following conclusions are drawn：
1. Arbitration proceedings on the revision of prices contributes to the transition from a formula for calculating prices linked to the oil price index to a pricing mechanism based on various indices of natural gas hubs.2. When concluding a new long-term contract, it is proposed to comprehensively use the price index of the emerging shopping center, the spot price and the price formula calculated by JCC.3. A long-term contract still plays an integral role in ensuring safe natural gas supplies in extreme events (for example: a similar COVID-19 epidemic).
Keywords: national energy security, internal market reform, natural gas hub, LNG, portfolio players, long-term contract, spot agreement, international arbitration, price revision, carbon-neutral
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Закон КНР от 01
Foreign trade entrepreneurial activity in modern Russian case law
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2021. – № 3.
– P. 1-12.
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Abstract: In the era of globalization, international trade relations are an integral part of the economy of majority of the countries, including the Russian Federation. Increase of the role of entrepreneurship in the sphere of foreign trade entails escalated disputes. This article reviews the theoretical aspects of law enforcement practice on the disputes associated with foreign trade entrepreneurial activity. Analysis is conducted on legal regulation of foreign trade entrepreneurial activity, as well as Russian case law in the corresponding sphere, namely disputes considered in arbitration court, and theoretical research on the matter. Methodological framework is comprised of the general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition (dialectical, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparative-legal, and historical-legal). The author concludes on the lack of uniformity in the approaches used by arbitration courts towards determining the law applicable to transboundary agreements. The creation of uniform case law on the controversial issues requires taking into account the existing law enforcement practice, as well as unifying them based on accumulated experience. For example, in the Russian Federation this process could be facilitated through corresponding clarifications on the level of resolution of the Plenum of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation with explanations on the key contentious issues pertaining to the disputes in foreign trade entrepreneurial activity. The presented materials can be used in further consideration of disputes in the sphere of foreign trade entrepreneurship, as well as in providing explanations of law enforcement practice.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, arbitration, judicial practice, customs authorities, economic sanctions, tariff and non-tariff regulation measures, economic measures, foreign trade activities, foreign economic contracts, application of law
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National appropriation of natural resources in international space law
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2021. – № 1.
– P. 46-59.
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Abstract: The author considers the problem of international legal regulation of activities on the use of natural resources of space. The results of the analysis of international treaties in the field of space law, resolutions of the UN General Assembly, reports of the Legal Subcommittee of the UN Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space are presented. The methodological basis of the research was made up of general scientific and private scientific methods of cognition (dialectical method, method of analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparative legal and historical legal methods). Currently, there is no universal international legal regulation of the legal status and regime of the use of natural resources of outer space. In order to carry out activities for the extraction of natural resources, it is necessary to develop appropriate international legal norms. In this regard, two alternative positions are being discussed - the concept of the "common heritage of mankind", developed in international maritime law, and the Artemis Agreements proposed by the United States. In the course of the study, the following conclusions were made. The prohibition of national appropriation of outer space and celestial bodies applies to States and individuals. International space law does not explicitly prohibit the use of space for the extraction and commercial exploitation of natural resources. However, natural resources are part of outer space and celestial bodies, respectively, in the absence of special rules governing their legal status and mode of use, the legal regime established in relation to outer space and celestial bodies should be extended to them. There is a tendency to develop a legal regime for the use of natural resources of outer space at the national level with the transition to the international one. The results of the study can be used in the interpretation of the provisions of international space law and the development of international norms concerning the legal status and regime of the use of natural resources of space.
Keywords: international space law, international law, legal regime, celestial bodies, Artemis Agreements, national appropriation, outer space, space resources, exploration of space resources, private property
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Mandatory and hybrid arbitration clauses in the practice of international financial institutions
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2020. – № 2.
– P. 88-105.
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Abstract: This article analyzes the process of application of the hybrid and mandatory arbitration clauses in the practice of international financial institutions. Same as the international commercial arbitration, the domestic arbitration is the most acceptable form of resolution of financial disputes. Contracts with consumers of financial services more often utilize the mandatory arbitration clauses, being the reason why arbitration became de-facto a mandatory means of resolution of disputes with consumers in the sphere of financial services. At the same time, arbitration procedure of dispute resolution is not without its flaws, currently demonstrating trends of increased costs of arbitration, as well is increased term of review of arbitration cases. This gave rise to a new form of arbitration clauses – hybrid dispute resolution clauses, which gives the parties to a dispute an opportunity to seek resolution in state courts, as well as arbitration as an alternative. The novelty of this research consists in the fact that in the conditions of growing “complication” of the arbitration process, there is a high likelihood of application of the hybrid dispute resolution clauses among the international financial institutions. There is also the fact that that arbitration, conducted in accordance with the US financial regulator FINRA, is also mandatory, and in majority of cases yields no results in resolution of disputes of consumers, but its “mandate” is underlines by other causes, than the initiative of large international corporations providing the service.
Keywords: securities market, class action, financial disputes, alternative dispute resolution, mandatory arbitration, International Swaps Association, hybrid dispute resolution clauses, financial institutions, commercial arbitration, Mandatory Arbitration Clauses
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Legal issues of environmental protection of the Caspian Sea
// International Law and International Organizations. – 2019. – № 1.
– P. 10-19.
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Abstract: The author examines the aspects of environmental component of legal regulation of the Caspian Sea, the largest landlocked body of water on Earth. The cooperation of littoral states with regards to its environmental protection is complicated by the fact that after the dissemination of USSR, instead of two countries – Iran and Soviet Union, there have formed five countries interested in hydrocarbon extraction from the bottom of Caspian Sea, which caused acute contradictions between them. In light of this reason, the validity of Tehran Framework Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Caspian Sea in encumbered. The signed in 2018 Convention on the Status of Caspian Sea, overall, follows the regulations of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982. The author notes that the planned adoption of the obligatory document on environmental protection and sustainable use of maritime biodiversity (as an addendum to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea) can become a positive addition to the legal system existing in the Caspian Sea. The need is claimed for the expansion of further productive cooperation of the states, which interests in one or another way are affected by this problem.
Keywords: environmental law, UN, Caspian state, international treaty, environment, biodiversity, Caspian sea, ecological safety, maritime law, international law
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