An abstract of an article published in an academic journal informs the reader about the article’s content and the research findings it contains.
The abstract performs the following functions:
1. it allows the reader to establish the main content of the article, to determine its relevance, and to decide whether to refer to the full text of the article;
2. it provides information about the document, and, if the article is of secondary interest to the reader, it eliminates the need to read the full text of the article;
3. it is used by systems for the retrieval of documents and information, including search engines.
Abstracts should be:
1. informative (not in general terms);
3. substantial (must reflect the main content of the article and research results);
4. structured (describe the results in the article logically);
5. brief (between 120 to 250 words).
The abstract should include the following aspects of the article content:
1. the subject and purpose of the research;
2. the research method or methodology;
3. research findings;
4. the scope of the application of the findings;
The subject area, the topic, and the focus of the research should be specified in case they are not clear from the title of the article.
The research method or methodology needs to be described effectively if it is markedly different because of its novelty or if it is interesting in relation to this particular research. In abstracts of papers describing experimental research, indicate the sources of the data and the nature of their treatment.
Research findings should be extremely accurate and informative. You should include the fundamental theoretical and experimental results, actual data, observed relationships and patterns. Preference will be given to new research and data with long-term significance, important discoveries, findings that contradict existing theories, as well as data that, according to the author, are of practical importance.
Conclusions can be accompanied by recommendations, evaluations, suggestions, and hypotheses described in the article.