The Russian Origin of hybrid warfare as a tool to promote the Anti-Russian Agenda in Western Society
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2023. – ¹ 3.
– P. 36-53.
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Abstract: The author examines the publications of Western authors on the subject of hybrid warfare from 2014 to 2022, inclusive. The purpose of the study is to analyze the views of Western political and military experts that hybrid warfare is a development of Russian military thought, as one of the mechanisms to promote the anti-Russian agenda. The subject of the study is the publications of Western researchers on the topics of information and hybrid warfare from 2014 to 2022. The object of the study is a Russophobic narrative created around the phenomenon of hybrid warfare by Western political and military experts. The Russophobic narrative means a constructed sequence of images and ideas of an anti-Russian orientation, clothed in the form of a scientific narrative. Due to the huge array of publications for the period from 2014 to 2022, the work analyzed studies reflecting the main specifics of the views of Western authors on the subject under consideration. According to the results of the study, it was revealed that Western researchers began to attribute hybrid warfare to the development of Russian military theorists in 2014, which falls on a new round of active confrontation between Russia and the United States and the beginning of an active anti-Russian campaign in the West. Hybrid warfare has become a journalistic cliche today, which experts and journalists use to describe any actions that do not fit within the framework of traditional ideas about the principles of conventional warfare. Based on initially false and unsubstantiated theses, Western authors accuse Russia of waging a "barbaric war" on the territory of Ukraine in the period from 2014 to 2022. This study revealed that all the tools and elements of hybrid warfare described by Western experts have been successfully used by the United States and the NATO bloc in the course of modern military conflicts. Thus, the humanitarian sphere in the West has turned into another element of propaganda.
Keywords: western studies, international humanitarian law, special military operation, war crimes, unrestricted warfare, russiaphobia, propaganda, cyber-attacks, infromation warfare, hybrid warfare
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The Crimean War and the Eastern Question in the view of Catholic Americans in the middle of the XIX century (based on the materials of the Boston Pilot)
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2023. – ¹ 3.
– P. 54-73.
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Abstract: The article examines the publications of the Boston Pilot for the period from 1849 to 1856, devoted to the Eastern question and the Crimean War. The purpose of the study is to analyze the views of Catholic Americans on the events of the mid-19th century, as a result of America's information policy to counter British expansionism in the 19th century. The subject of the study are the issues of the Boston Pilot magazine, which feature articles on the Eastern question and the Crimean War. The lower chronological frame is due to the fact that the events of 1849 ("Spring of the Peoples") served as a prologue to the crisis in the East. The object of the study is the information policy of America, aimed at forming a narrative about the Eastern question and the Crimean War among the American Catholic population, following the American foreign policy course of the XIX century. According to the results of the study, it was revealed that the newspaper's publications can be divided into two periods according to their tonality. The first one, from 1849 to 1853, follows the pan-European discourse and contains statements and provisions with an anti-Russian orientation. The subsequent escalation of the conflict with the inclusion of Great Britain and France in the conflict leads to a transformation of the views of the authors of the Boston Pilot on the events taking place. The publication begins to position the conflict as a tool to weaken the British Empire, urging readers to refrain from direct participation. In this interpretation, Russia appears as a lesser evil necessary for the fight against Britain. The attitude of the Catholic population of the United States to the events of the middle should be positioned as anti-British. The assessment of sentiments as pro-Russian is erroneous and creates a misconception not only about American society of the period under review, but also about US foreign policy in the XIX century.
Keywords: Irish, Russiaphobia, Image of Russia, American policy, Eastern question, Crimena war, Propaganda, Information warfare, American catholics, American media
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Symbolic field of modern Islamism
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2020. – ¹ 2.
– P. 57-73.
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Abstract: The subject of this research is the key topoi of the discourse of Islamist propaganda and the mechanism of their representation by a number of unaccredited sources of the Russian-language extremist propaganda. The object of this research is the Islamist discourse covered by the “official” sources of the prohibited in the Russian Federation international terrorist organizations – “Islamic State”, “Dabiq” and “Rumiyah”, as well as a number of Russian-language sources of Islamist propaganda. The author examines such aspects of jihadist propaganda as the category of space, semiotics of Islamist propaganda; postmodern traits in the jihadist propaganda materials. Analysis is conducted on the category “Dawlah” (“state” from Arabic) as a sovereign concept in the discourse of “Islamic State” organization. Special attention is paid to the characteristic of Islamist propaganda as a phenomenon typical for the era of postmodernism. The distinctive features of the Russian-language Islamist discourse are described. Leaning on the analysis of textual and visual materials of Islamist propaganda, the author concludes on inextricable connection of the discourse of jihadist propaganda with the society of its function, despite the thesis on irreconcilable confrontation to the “Taghut” society declared by the ideologists of the international terrorist organization “Islamic State”. This thesis is proven by a certain symbolic set of Islamist propaganda, usage of symbols comprehensible to modern audiences, and significant attention given to the brand and style of the jihadists. After the defeat of the Caliphate as a proto-state entity (rather than a terrorist organization), the “Islamic State” substantially migrated into the virtual space. In an attempt to influence the audience, jihadist propaganda operates not only on the level of objective reality, but immerses the reader in an entirely virtual world. This work reveals the peculiarities of such process.
Keywords: Jihad, Ideology, Islamic radicalism, Agitation, ISIS, Islamic state, Terrorism, Islamism, Religious fanaticism, Postmodernism
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Objective and subjective factors of Europe's perception of Russia
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2016. – ¹ 1.
– P. 79-85.
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Abstract: The article analyzes international conditions that influence the image of Russia, and sheds light on the psychological mechanisms of its perception in the EU. Attention is focused on the analysis of objective and subjective factors of constructive and negative perception of Russia and its leader. The author examines status conflicts, as well as the methods and tools for purposeful misrepresentation of Russia's image in Europe. Aside this, the author provides examples of studies of Russia's image by European scientists. The author focuses attention on the influence of the image of a political leader in the formation of the image of a state. The methodological basis of this study includes analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, observation. Aside from that, the author employs the interdisciplinary approach. The novelty of this work is based on a detailed examination of the influence of psychological mechanisms on the perception of the image of a state on the background of globalization. The author reaches the conclusion that a negative image may be the result of not only objective factors, but subjectove factors, as well.
Keywords: state image, image perception, status conflict, image, perception factors, European countries, perception of Russia, stereotypes, EU
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Latin America Under a «Media Assault»: the Chronicles of an Information War
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2014. – ¹ 1.
– P. 156-169.
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Abstract: The examination of contemporary information and communication technologies in
the modern world drastically changes the principles and methods of administration and education.
Today, it lies in the foundation for the revolutions in the fields of international relations and in the
art of war. Therefore, one of the prominent tasks before Latin American countries and their defense
departments is the usage of information to manage any conflict, because information may influence
the perceptions of people. The methodological basis of this work is systemic, structural-functional,
comparative-historical, comparative-political, geopolitical and cultural-civilizaitonal approaches, and
the methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, modeling and observation. Today, a sound
strategy of information management enables a country to be victorious in a standoff. The forms of
processing, actualization and circulation of information, such as the Internet, the «new mass media
and communications», became a new method of conducting modern warfare.
Keywords: conflict studies, foreign policy, conflict, resolution, information warfare, USA, cyber warfare, Latin America, public diplomacy.
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