Komakha A.A., Ivashkin M.A., Kotov M.V..
The relations between France and the Middle East states during the presidency of Emmanuel Macron in the context of settlement of regional crises
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2022. – ¹ 1.
– P. 1-10.
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Abstract: This article analyzes the relations between France and the Middle East states through the prism of foreign policy course of Emmanuel Macron, who was elected as the president of France on May 14, 2017. The Middle East vector of foreign policy is traditional for the Republic, and therefore is one of the foreign policy priorities for the current leader. The author aim to determine the essence and key peculiarities of the Middle East course of E. Macron. For achieving the set goal it is necessary to outline the priority foreign policy vectors of the president and range of countries in the region that are subject to the measures of his chosen course; analyze in which states and to what extent the leader of the Republic continues the policy of his predecessors who were in power since the early XXI century; and changes in the relations between France and certain Middle East states. The conclusion is made on the presence of particular factors that hinder the conduct of smart policy in the region, which would meet the interests of all Middle Eastern actors. Disaccord of the French leader with his international partners regarding the Middle East regulation significantly complicates the implementation of smart foreign relative to the Arab world. E. Macron is currently paying scrupulous attention to the policy of European integration, which raises a number of unresolved issues regarding the Middle East. This alongside the domestic political issues undermines the authority of the current French leader.
Keywords: United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Syria, Libya, Algeria, Middle East, Saudi Arabia, Makron, France, foreign policy
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Smirnova O.A., Zol
Ayoub C., Yakuba A., Umar B., Stanovov E..
Problems and prospects for the development of foreign policy of the Sahel countries in the context of modern international relations
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2021. – ¹ 3.
– P. 87-98.
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Abstract: This article covers the problems of foreign policy problems faced by the Sahel countries. The research is dedicated to the peculiarities of the policy of Sahel Alliance in countering the risks and threats to regional security. The goal consists in outlining the key priorities and vectors of foreign policy of the Sahel countries. The methodological framework is comprised of the historical-comparative and historical-genetic methods, as well as content analysis of the doctrinal sources of the Sahel countries for determination of the foremost threats. This allows establishing differences between the approaches used by Chad, Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso aimed at expansion of their economic, political and military influence in the Sahel Region. The scientific novelty consists in the fact that on the basis of content analysis of UN speeches of the leaders of Sahel countries, the author examines the prioritization of threats for the four countries of Sahel Region and the desired mechanisms for their elimination. The current challenge for the Sahel countries is to simultaneously protect their people and promote development via reform for establishing lasting and stable peace in the region. At the same time, such countries as Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali, Chad and the Sahel Region overall have strengthen their strategic importance for the European foreign policy and security interests.
Keywords: instability, threats, challenges, Security, economy, foràing policy, 5g Sahel, Sahel, Africa, conflict
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Decolonization of Cyprus and position of the Soviet Union (1953-1959(
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2020. – ¹ 2.
– P. 42-56.
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Abstract: This article examines the process of decolonization of Cyprus and support of the Soviet Union in the struggle against British colonialism. The author substantiates why the case of Cyprus deserves special attention, and how its national characteristics alongside other factors, including the position of Great Britain, Greece, and Turkey impacted decolonization process of the island. It is underlined that the Soviet policy in support of national identity of the Cypriots, as demonstrated by diplomatic steps in the United Nations Security Council in 1954-1958, pursued two directions: weakening of British positions in the Eastern Mediterranean, and initiation of a split in relations between the two NATO members – Greece and Turkey, using their national interests in Cyprus. The unpublished Greek and Soviet materials served as methodological framework for this research. The author leans on the archival foreign policy materials of the Russian Federation, diplomatic and foreign policy archives of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, as well as the Foundation of the Prime Minister of Greece Konstantinos Karamanlis. The use of vast array of sources on the three languages dedicated to the topic allowed concluding that the tactics of the Soviet Union pertinent to Cyprus question of 1953-1959, was ineffective, since the gap between Greece and Turkey and NATO has been overcome after signing the Cyprus Agreements of 1959. A sovereign Cyprus State within the framework of the Non-Aligned Movement, and political protection of the Cypriot Communists (the strongest Communist Party in the region), would be the best way for ensuring Soviet security, since these subjects could control the use of the British military facilities, and thus, expand Soviet influence in the region.
Keywords: Cold War, Greece, Great Britain, Soviet Union, self-determination, Cyprus question, Decolonization of Cyprus, United Nations, Archbishop Makarios, Constantine Karamanlis
Stergiou A. Revised history of Cyprus // The Middle East and North Africa 2020 / Europa Publications. 66th edition. – New York: Routledge, 2019. – pp. 149–157.
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The features ethnic conflicts in Africa: the Mauritania–Senegal crisis (1989-1991)
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2019. – ¹ 2.
– P. 22-32.
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Abstract: The phenomenon of ethnic conflicts and accompanying factors in the various regions of the world is one of the global problems that mankind faces today. In this article the author examines the history of emergence and resolution of the ethnic conflict in the delta of the Senegal River, that started in the late 1980s. The core of the conflict was in the mutual territorial claims between the black population of the left river bank and the Arab population who resided on the right bank of the Senegal river. The author spotlights the historical preconditions, characteristics and deeper motives of the conflict. The foundation of the study consists of the method of historism, including detailed study of cause and effect relations between the phenomena covered in the article, as well as the comparative historical analysis of literature covering the Mauritania–Senegal conflict. The academic novelty of this study is based on the fact that the article analyzes the foreign literature on Mauritania–Senegal conflict, as this issue is practically untouched in Russian historiography. Based on this analysis, the author highlights the specific traits of the ethnic conflicts in West Africa - for instance, their dependence not only interreligious contradictions, but also climate change.
Keywords: berbers, Moors, drought, refugees, Mauritania, Senegal, ethnic conflict, Fulani, West Africa, deportation
UNHCR distributes biometric ID cards to refugees in Senegal // UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency, 22 oktyabrya 2012. Dostup: http://www.unhcr.org/508536389.html (provereno 14.01.2016)
Khabenskaya E.O. Senegalo-Mavritanskiy konflikt 1989 goda: prichiny i posledstviya // Konfliktologiya / nota bene. 2015. ¹ 1. C. 45 - 58. DOI: 10.7256/2409-8965.2015.1.13713.
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UNHCR completes repatriation of more than 24,000 Mauritanians // UNHCR: The UN Refugee Agency, 27 marta 2012. Dostup: http://www.unhcr.org/4f71f54c6.html (provereno 14.01.2016)
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Kurylev K.P., Morozov A.V..
The impact of the Ukrainian crisis on the situation in Transnistria
// Conflict Studies / nota bene. – 2017. – ¹ 3.
– P. 38-49.
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Abstract: The subject of research of this article is the situation in the unrecognized Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. The object of the study is the crisis in Ukraine, on the background of which the issue is being studied. The authors reveal the impact of the Ukrainian crisis on the situation in Transnistria. Particular attention is drawn to the fact that, from a geopolitical point of view, the policy of official Kiev regarding Transnistria is developing in parallel with the strengthening of the anti-Russian rhetoric in Ukrainian foreign policy. The authors demonstrate the destructive influence of the blockade of the border of the unrecognized republic from the Ukrainian side on the Transnistria region. In the current situation, when official Kiev adamantly maintains the rhetoric of a military threat coming from the Transnistria, and the so-called "security dilemma" that emerges is being studied in this article. The methodological basis of this article is defined by its goals and methods and is defined by the approach and the academic view of the authors. The theoretical and methodological basis of this work contains approaches and methods that are used by modern political science for comprehensive analysis of international relations structure, and the mechanisms of the formation of foreign policies of certain countries. Being inter-disciplinary, this study is based on the border between history, political science, conflictology, international relations. This approach allows a comprehensive and objective research of the subject. The main conclusions of the authors are as follows. The coup d’état in Ukraine paved the way to the degradation of the situation in Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. A pre-crisis Ukraine fostered the opportunities to develop tighter relations with Moscow and Tiraspol. The antagonism of the new Ukrainian authorities towards Russia push Kiev to use the geography of the country and the geopolitical context to influence both Moscow and Transnistria in order to force Russian peacekeepers from Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. Russian authorities, in turn, are required to maneuver and to carefully consider foreign policy in the region. The scientific novelty of this work is the study of the influence of Ukrainian crisis on Transnistria in the perspective of modern academic knowledge, and the usage of a broad library of sources and modern science literature.
Keywords: unrecognized state, security dilemma, Ukrainian crisis, Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, blockade, regional security, coup d'etat
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Ukaz prezidenta Ukra¿ni ¹555/201. Pro r³shennya Radi nats³onal'no¿ bezpeki ³ oboroni Ukra¿ni v³d 2 veresnya 2015 roku «Pro novu redakts³yu Voºnno¿ doktrini Ukra¿ni» // http://www.president.gov.ua/documents/5552015-19443
Selivanova I.F. Pridnestrov'e v kontekste ukrainskogo krizisa: do i posle // Ukrainskiy krizis: prichiny, evolyutsiya, uroki. – M.: Institut ekonomiki RAN, Tsentr vneshney politiki Rossii, 2015. – 242 s.
Nersiyan L. Otstupat' bol'she nekuda: voennye bazy Rossii. // https://regnum.ru/news/polit/1908336.html
Kurylev K.P. Vneshnyaya politika Ukrainy v kontekste formirovaniya regional'noy sistemy bezopasnosti v Evrope – M.: RUDN, 2014. – 531 s.
Danilov D. Pridnestrovskoe uregulirovanie: vneshniy kontekst // Evropeyskiy protsess: strany i regiony, 2016. – S.31.
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