Questions of current interest
Belikova K.M. —
Theoretical and practical aspects of legal qualification of virtual property in Russia and abroad
// Legal Studies.
– 2021. – ¹ 7.
– P. 1 - 28.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2021.7.35869 URL: https://en. nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=35869
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The subject of this research is the theoretical and practical aspects of legal qualification of virtual property – digital online objects (cryptocurrencies, game property, user accounts, etc.) in Russia and abroad. Virtual property is viewed through the prism of the concept of “asset” / “economic asset”, established in the national and foreign legislation and doctrine. Real right to game objects in online games are considered through the lens of John Locke’s labor theory of property (acquisition), M. Radin’s theory of personality, theories of utilitarianism (deterrence of negative behavior and economic efficiency), law enforcement practices and legislation (South Korea, China, etc.). Real right to online accounts (Google, Yahoo etc.) are examined in the context of allowability of transferring personal and business accounts from the perspective of property and conventional law. The relevance, theoretical and practical importance of this research is are substantiated by supplementing the tangible objects of proprietary right with digital, created in modern reality with the use of digital technologies (cryptocurrencies, tokens, etc.), which requires clarification of their legal regime in the context of the effective legislation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries, ideas for its amendment, and law enforcement practice. The author concludes that the legal doctrine of a number of countries, distinguishing tangible and intangible, virtual objects (game objects, user accounts) recognized the existence and legal status of virtual property (Hong Kong, European Union, South Korea, Russian Federation, Taiwan), qualifying it as the analogue of digital information and content; legally - movable (Taiwan) or other (Russian Federation) property; property (the European Court of Human Rights) or utilitarian (mandatory) digital (Russian Federation) rights; economically – virtual (financial, in form of future income), and material (in form of commercial ties, domain names, etc.) assets (the European Court of Human Rights, Russian Federation).
cryptocurrencies, accounts, in-game property, virtual property, foreign countries, Russia, networking, assets, real rights, property
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