Договор и обязательства
Modern Problems of Void Transactions in the Civil Law of the Russian Federation
// Legal Studies.
2024. № 2.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2024.2.39743 EDN: JHJLNI URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=39743
The article examines the legal, organizational foundations and a number of topical problems of insignificant transactions in Russian legislation with an indication of the origins of these norms in ancient Roman jurisprudence. The subject of the study is the problems caused by the recognition of transactions as insignificant in modern Russia. The object of the study is the legal provisions of civil law that carry out the legal regulation of void transactions. The purpose of the work is to form proposals that contribute to their leveling by identifying and analyzing the actual problems of the insignificance of transactions. The methods used are dialectical-materialistic, historical, a system of empirical research methods (analogy, modeling) and special methods (formal-logical, system-analytical), etc. The author examines in detail the signs of void transactions, the problems of recognizing the nullity of the transaction; the subject of which is property, with respect to the disposal of which there is an imperative prohibition, restriction. Particular attention is paid to the problems of the insignificance of the part of the transaction. The main conclusions of this study are the following: it is justified to bring into compliance with Article 12 of the Civil Code and the legal position of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Resolution of the Plenum of June 23, 2015 No. 25) with respect to the method of protecting civil rights ("application of the consequences of the invalidity of an insignificant transaction"); to formulate Article 169 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in a new edition reflecting the concept of "public interest". A special contribution of the author to the study of the topic is the proposal to specify Article 180 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation in terms of indicating exceptions to the general rule of invalidation of part of the transaction. The results of the article can be used in improving civil legislation, in law enforcement, in further scientific research. Conclusions: despite the improvement of the norms of civil law, the massive nature of the recognition of transactions as void indicates significant problems, as insignificant transactions in general, as well as parts of these transactions (in practical and scientific-theoretical contexts), requiring optimal solutions.
nullity of a part of a transaction, void transaction, classification of invalid transactions, part of an invalid transaction, invalid transaction, part of a transaction, transaction, public interest, civil law, prohibition
Law and order
Social and legal conditionality of customs duties evasion criminal liability
// Legal Studies.
2024. № 2.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2024.2.69638 EDN: EWAHUM URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=69638
The subject of this article is the socio-legal conditionality of establishing liability for criminal evasion of customs and other payments. This article aims to answer the question of the validity of the elevation of the specified illegal act in the field of economic activity to the category of criminally punishable acts by analyzing relevant statistical data, recent legislative changes in the criminal law, studying the author's positions on the expediency of criminal law protection of calculation and collection of customs and other payments, and also taking into account technical transformations in the customs infrastructure. The author used dialectical, systemic, sociological, statistical, comparative legal methods to study the patterns of changes in the field of customs relations and subsequent legislative transformations in criminal legislation, the impact of these legislative decisions on statistical indicators of countering customs crime. As a result of the analysis of current statistical data related to the dynamics of the number of registered crimes, economic harm caused, recent legislative changes in the criminal law sphere, the study of author's positions on the expediency of criminal law protection of public relations related to the calculation and collection of customs and other payments, as well as taking into account information and technical transformations in the customs infrastructure the author concludes that it is advisable to establish a criminal law prohibition on evasion of customs payments, special, anti-dumping and (or) countervailing duties levied on organizations, as well as individuals. The relevance of this article is also due to the fact that over the past almost 10 years there have been no works devoted to the analysis of the socio-legal conditionality of establishing liability for evasion of customs and other payments paid in connection with the movement of goods across the customs border.
crime, the customs sphere, criminalization, economic damage, public danger, Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, socio-legal conditionality, validity, payment of customs duties, evasion
Peculiarities of establishing the fact of recognition of paternity under the legislation of the Russian Federation
// Legal Studies.
2024. № 2.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2024.2.69755 EDN: GCIIFQ URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=69755
The subject of the study is the norms of Russian family legislation regulating relations related to the procedure for establishing the fact of recognition of paternity. The object of this study is family and procedural relations arising in connection with the establishment of the fact of recognition of paternity. The concept of "illegitimate children" is one of the oldest in the history of law. His appearance is associated with the strengthening of the monogamous family. The universal principle of equality, declared for the first time in Soviet law, demanded the equalization of illegitimate children, including in rights with children born in marriage. However, until the very end of the action of the CPC of the RSFSR, such a fact as the recognition of paternity was absent from it. Since the procedural features of the proceedings to establish the fact of recognition of paternity could not be reflected in the IC of the Russian Federation – due to the material nature of the regulated relations, for the purpose of uniform application of civil procedure legislation regulating the procedure for considering cases of special proceedings, the fact of recognition of paternity was for the first time included in the list of facts of legal significance established by the CPC of the Russian Federation. Thus, the date of occurrence in the Russian civil procedure legislation of the institution of establishing the fact of recognition of paternity is (if we do not accept the judicial practice that created it) the date of entry into force of the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Federation in 2002. In the course of the work, general scientific and special methods of cognition were used: comparative legal in the analysis of new and previously existing family legal norms, as well as the formal legal method. It cannot be said that the procedural rules for establishing paternity have not been the object of research in Russian jurisprudence. However, issues of non–search proceedings, issues of establishing the fact of recognition of paternity - attention in these studies has not been adequately paid, although procedural features and the presence of a considerable number of problematic aspects of the consideration of this category of cases are beyond doubt. So far, this institution has not been significantly demanded by judicial practice, but a special military operation implies an increase in its relevance, since in the absence of the serviceman himself, the court requires any evidence of the fact that he recognizes paternity in relation to the child. Currently, this status is particularly important for receiving social benefits that the State has guaranteed to members of military families.
fatherhood, special procedure, the fact of recognition of paternity, dispute over the right, protection of the right, protection of legitimate interest, court, being dependent, illegitimate child, kid