Экологическое и земельное право
Svetskiy A.V. —
Legal Protection of the Marine Environment from Oil and Petroleum Product Spills
// Legal Studies.
– 2023. – № 3.
– P. 1 - 12.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2023.3.39944 EDN: FHIONT URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=39944
The article deals with social relations arising in the process of preventing and eliminating emergency oil and petroleum product spills in the marine environment. The danger of pollution of the marine environment by oil and petroleum products is reviewed, two major accidents related to the spill of oil and petroleum products are mentioned: the release of oil from the Exxon Valdez tanker and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The methods used to eliminate accidents in the Baltic Sea, as well as some features of this region, are considered. The special role of the Polar Code in the prevention of pollution of polar waters by oil and petroleum products is considered. The article also discusses the requirements for the prevention of accidental spills contained in international acts. The article notes that most of the existing international legal norms, as well as legal acts of national legislation, are aimed at ensuring compliance with the established rules for the transportation of oil and petroleum products, requirements for the operation of ships, their design features, as well as for the proper operation of equipment. It is necessary to eliminate gaps in legislation regarding the regulation of oil collection under ice in the polar region. It seems necessary to legislatively regulate the use of special means for monitoring oil spills. Legislation in the field of forecasting, accident prevention, as well as taking into account the natural features of the region of production and transportation of petroleum products needs further improvement
accident, oil and oil products, legal regulation, polar waters, Baltic Sea, marine environment, environment, oil spills, MARPOL, oil spill response
Smirnova M.S., Listratov I.V., Yun D.A. —
Legal Regulation of Qualification Requirements for the Teaching Staff of Higher Educational Institutions
// Legal Studies.
– 2023. – № 3.
– P. 13 - 23.
DOI: 10.25136/2409-7136.2023.3.40057 EDN: BLEWNV URL: https://en.nbpublish.com/library_read_article.php?id=40057
The subject of the study is the legal regulation of qualification requirements for the teaching staff of higher educational institutions in the Russian Federation. The authors discuss the main qualification requirements that apply to the positions of assistant, teacher, senior lecturer, associate professor, professor. Universities may introduce additional requirements when announcing a competition for positions, in most cases they are reduced to the applicant's compliance with a certain level of publication activity. The legal regulation of the requirements for the teaching staff of higher educational institutions is carried out in accordance with the norms of the Labor Code, the Law "On Education in the Russian Federation", the corresponding Order of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation. The activity of the teaching staff is connected with the implementation of federal state educational programs, which also prescribe the requirements for personnel. As a result of the study, the specifics of the qualification requirements for scientific and pedagogical workers were revealed. The complexity of the professional functions performed by the teaching staff largely determines the existence of a fairly extensive legal framework regulating social and labor relations between an employee and an employer. The analysis of this legal framework indicates not only its multi-step nature and complexity, but also a certain instability. A number of qualification requirements have recently undergone significant changes. A certain obstacle to starting a teaching profession is the qualification requirements for the position of an assistant. The requirements for the teaching staff vary not only from position to position, but also vary depending on the institution of higher education.
academic degree, effective contract, post, election by competition, legal regulation, qualification requirements, teaching staff, higher education institution, higher education, dissertation