State insurance in the Soviet legal doctrine
// Finance and Management. – 2021. – № 1.
– P. 72-78.
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Abstract: This article attempts to analyze the theoretical approaches towards regulation of state insurance by various branches of the Soviet law that existed in the legal thought of the XX century. Attention is focused on the state activity aimed at formation of the specialized insurance funds and peculiarities of their use. The article examines the procedure for the formation of state insurance fund, development trends, understanding of the essence and the key role of state insurance in the Soviet period. It is indicated that state insurance in the Soviet period represented the activity of government branches on formation of the specialized monetary funds by means of contributions made by socialist organizations and citizens (policyholders) that were used by the insurance system to compensate for material damage caused by natural disasters, accidents, etc., as well as carried out preventive measures and awareness-raising activity for their prevention. The following conclusions were formulated: in the Soviet period insurance as the legal institution was studied by a range of legal sciences, including the science of financial law; the insurance relations were regulated by several branches of the Soviet law. It is worth noting that the question on the boundaries of such regulation was of ambiguous and debatable nature. For the most part, insurance relations in the Soviet period were regulated by the norms of financial and civil law. The Soviet financial law regulated the relations that arouse in the process of development of state insurance as one of the main types of financial activity of the state. The property relations that established on the basis of implementation of these general terms were of civil nature. The question of sectoral borders is still relevant for many post-Soviet states.
Keywords: financial system, mandatory payments, Soviet economy, Soviet legal science, national economy, state finance, state insurance, legal doctrine, finance, financial law
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Minimization of Compulsory Insurance Rates By Using the Single Fund System
// Finance and Management. – 2017. – № 4.
– P. 84-94.
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Abstract: The subject of this resarch is the influence of the scheme of mandatory insurance funds on the amount of insurance contributions. It is possible to reduce insurance costs and keep the same coverage and reliability of the system only under the following conditions: efficient fund risk classification, full collectability of rates, unity of regulation terms, combination of all possible risks in one fund, maximum reduction of acquisition costs and exclusion commercial elements from the compulsory insurance system. These factors depend, in the first place on the 'architecture' of the compulsory insurance system which an be based as two principally different schemes: with a single insurance fund and numerous individual insurance organisations. The author of the article defines and evaluates differences in the structure of insurance rates for aforesaid schemes using the methods of comparative and actuarial analysis. Apart from evident conclusions about the scheme with a single insurance fund enabling a lower insurance cost as a result of the large numbers law effect and economizing on administrative expenses, the author has defined other effects as well in the course of his research. In particular, he has proved that under compulsory insurance conditions, the scheme with a single insurance fund allows to recude or even exclude elements of inefficient risk classification, incomplete coverage of insurants, bankruptcy of individual insurers, hidden profit, etc. from the insurance rate structure. The research results allow to make an important conclusion that the scheme with a single insurance fund covers wide layers of population and is a more efficient and just in relation to socially important kinds of mandatory insurance.
Keywords: risk classification, risk selection, insurance price, insurance premium, insurance rate, compulsory insurance, insurance fund, insurance, technical insurance risk, insurance premium structure
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