Eng During last 365 days Approved articles: 2023,   Articles in work: 265 Declined articles: 848 
Articles and journals | Tariffs | Payments | Your profile

Back to contents

Compulsory license as the limitation on exclusive rights
Sagdeeva Liya Vladimirovna

Postgraduate at the Department of Civil Law and Procedure of The Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation

614077, Russia, Perm', ul. Arkadiya Gaidara, 5-66





All subjective civil rights are susceptible to limitations, especially it is relevant for the institution of “intellectual property”, in which the desire to ensure compromise between the interests of an author (rights holder) and the interests of society, engaged in free access to the results of intellectual work for the purpose of  cultural and technological development, is manifested most vividly. One of the results of balancing the interests within the intellectual property law, have become the constant expansion of various restrictions and limitations, primarily of the property rights of the authors (rights holders). This article discusses the questions of restrictions of the subjective civil rights applicable to exclusive right on the example of issuing a compulsory license. The author reviews the acting legislation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries. The following conclusions were made: all subjective civil rights are susceptible to limitations, which is especially topical for the institution of “intellectual property”; restrictions and limitations of right (free use, exhaustion, compulsory license, and rights of “prior and posterior” use) must be proven and cannot be subjected to extensive interpretation. A national patent law system concerning the granting of compulsory licenses is determined with reference to various objects of exclusive rights. The issue of compulsory licenses is possible in respect to the interests of private entities and public formations, including the purposes of healthcare and health protection that is particularly relevant for the developing countries. The compulsory license in the Institution of Intellectual property has similarities with the servitude as limitation of property rights, and is considered by the author as the limitation, rather than restriction of exclusive right.

Keywords: compulsory license, encumbrance of rights, limitations on rights, monopoly, intellectual property, property rights, exclusive rights, patent law, dependent patent, servitude



Article was received:


Review date:


Publish date:


This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .

[Elektronnyi dokument] (http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book388215/#page/ 931/mode/1up). Provereno 19.09.2017.
[Elektronnyi dokument] (http://www.runivers.ru/bookreader/book10010/#page/455/mode/1up). Provereno 19.09.2017.
Postanovlenie FAS Vostochno-Sibirskogo okruga ot 23.06.2011 po delu A33-17775/2009 // SPS Konsul'tant Plyus.
Postanovlenie Devyatogo arbitrazhnogo apellyatsionnogo suda ot 05.04.2017 09AP-10827/2017 po delu A40-102244/15 // SPS Konsul'tant Plyus.
G. Bodenkhauzen. Parizhskaya konventsiya po okhrane promyshlennoi sobstvennosti. M.: Progress, 1977. S. 103.
John R. Thomas, Compulsory Licensing of Patented Inventions, Congressional Research Service (2014). URL: https://www.ipmall.info/sites/default/files/hosted_resources/crs/R43266_140114.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 18 s.
World Trade Organization, Ministerial Declaration on the Trips Agreement and Public Heath, WT/MIN(01)/DEC/2, (2001). URL: https://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/minist_e/min01_e/mindecl_trips_e.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 2 s.
Ellen F. M. t Khoen, Politika mogushchestva farmatsevticheskikh monopolii: Patenty na lekarstva, dostupnost', innovatsii i primenenie Dokhinskoi deklaratsii o Soglashenii po TRIPS i obshchestvennom zdravookhranenii, Amsterdamskii universitet, 2009. URL: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s20963ru/s20963ru.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 156 s.
Ian F. Fergusson, The WTO, Intellectual Property Rights, and the Access to Medicines Controversy, CRS Report for Congress (2006). URL: research.policyarchive.org/3029.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 03.10.2017). 11 c.
Shayerah Ilias Akhtar and Ian F. Fergusson, Intellectual Property Rights and International Trade, Congressional Research Service (2014). URL: https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287919/m1/1/high_res_d/RL34292_2014Apr04.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 03.10.2017). 52 c.
Lisa Forman, Trade Rules, Intellectual Property, and the Right to Health. Ethics & International Affairs (2007), Vol. 21(3), pp. 337-357. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/227712456_Trade_Rules_Intellectual_Property_and_the_Right_to_Health (data obrashcheniya: 02.10.2017). 20 c.
Jarrod Tudor, Compulsory Licensing in the European Union, GEO. MASON J. INTL COM. LAW (Vol.4:2, 2012). URL: http://www.georgemasonjicl.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/TUDOR_4_J_Intl_Com_Law_222.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 37 s.
Office of the US Trade Representative, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). URL: https://ustr.gov/trade-agreements/free-trade-agreements/north-american-free-trade-agreement-nafta (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
North American Free Trade Agreement. Chapter Seventeen: Intellectual Property. URL: http://www.sice.oas.org/trade/nafta/chap-171.asp (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
Association of Patent Law Firms, Compulsory licence provisions across Europe, Issue 2007/28. URL: https://www.aplf.org/compulsory_licence_provisions_across_europe/index.html (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
Code de la propriété intellectuelle. URL: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichCodeArticle.do?cidTexte=LEGITEXT000006069414&idArticle=LEGIARTI000006279480 (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
The Patents Act 1977 (as amended). URL: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/647792/Consolidated_Patents_Act_1977_-_1_October_2017.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 02.10.2017). 102 s.
Intellectual Property Office, Section 48: Compulsory licences: general (2017). URL:https://www.gov.uk/guidance/manual-of-patent-practice-mopp/section-48-compulsory-licences-general (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
AB Volvo v. Erik Veng (UK) Ltd, Case 238/87, [1988] E.C.R. 6233. URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A61987CJ0238 (data obrashcheniya: 04.10.2017).
Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 2012/C 326/01. URL: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex%3A12012E%2FTXT (data obrashcheniya: 04.10.2017).
Natco Pharma Ltd v. Bayer Corporation (Controller of Patents, 2012) Case Analysis.URL:http://www.academia.edu/6744000/Natco_vs._Bayer_Controller_of_Patents_2012_Case_Analysis (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 5 s.
Measures of March 15, 2012, for Compulsory Licensing of Patent Implementation (promulgated by Order No. 64 of the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO)) http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=297934 (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 10 s.
Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (Public Law 83-703). URL: https://www.nrc.gov/docs/ML1327/ML13274A489.pdf#page=23 (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 520 s.
The Clean Air Act of 1970 (Public Law 91-604). URL: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-84/pdf/STATUTE-84-Pg1676.pdf (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 38 s.
U.S. Code Chapter 57 Plant Variety Protection URL: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/7/chapter-57 (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co. 210 U.S. 405 (1908). URL: https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/210/405/case.html (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
Hartford-Empire Co. v. United States 323 U.S. 386 (1945). URL: https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/323/386/case.html (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017).
U.S. Code 1498 Patent and copyright cases. URL: https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/28/1498 (data obrashcheniya: 03.10.2017).
Liberty Ammunition, LLC v. United States, 11-84 (Fed. Cl. 2014) https://ecf.cofc.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/show_public_doc?2011cv0084-112-0 (data obrashcheniya: 19.09.2017). 43 s.