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Compulsory license as the limitation on exclusive rights
Abstract.All subjective civil rights are susceptible to limitations, especially it is relevant for the institution of “intellectual property”, in which the desire to ensure compromise between the interests of an author (rights holder) and the interests of society, engaged in free access to the results of intellectual work for the purpose of cultural and technological development, is manifested most vividly. One of the results of balancing the interests within the intellectual property law, have become the constant expansion of various restrictions and limitations, primarily of the property rights of the authors (rights holders). This article discusses the questions of restrictions of the subjective civil rights applicable to exclusive right on the example of issuing a compulsory license. The author reviews the acting legislation of the Russian Federation and foreign countries. The following conclusions were made: all subjective civil rights are susceptible to limitations, which is especially topical for the institution of “intellectual property”; restrictions and limitations of right (free use, exhaustion, compulsory license, and rights of “prior and posterior” use) must be proven and cannot be subjected to extensive interpretation. A national patent law system concerning the granting of compulsory licenses is determined with reference to various objects of exclusive rights. The issue of compulsory licenses is possible in respect to the interests of private entities and public formations, including the purposes of healthcare and health protection that is particularly relevant for the developing countries. The compulsory license in the Institution of Intellectual property has similarities with the servitude as limitation of property rights, and is considered by the author as the limitation, rather than restriction of exclusive right.
Keywords: compulsory license, encumbrance of rights, limitations on rights, monopoly, intellectual property, property rights, exclusive rights, patent law, dependent patent, servitude
Article was received:16-10-2017
This article written in Russian. You can find full text of article in Russian here .