Philosophical study of sociopolitical meaning of nihilism
Abstract.The subject this research is the phenomenon of nihilism in European history, as well as its reflection in the philosophy E. Jünger, M. Heidegger and T. Adorno. Historical pathology, which is associated with the processes of the modernity and received a diagnosis of "nihilism", consists in the fact that the values of modernity and Enlightenment – autonomy, freedom from external authority, critical use of reason, universal principles, in terms of which have been criticized religion, history, morals, politics – due to its negative, revolutionary character are unfavorable for creating sustainable moral and social relations. The problem of philosophy consists in the attempt to find an adequate response to nihilism. The article applies hermeneutic analysis of philosophical texts to reveal the variations of such responses. The scientific novelty of the research lies in creation of typology of solution of the problem of nihilism, proposed by the European philosophy. At the same time, the two fundamental types of nihilistic sociopolitical worldview – passive and active, in other words, melancholically-contemplative attitude and proclivity for revolutionary transformation of the world, receive criticism based on the analysis of reflection of the leading European philosophers.
Keywords: philosophy, ideology, utopia, revolution, modernity, values, society, nihilism, politics, messianism
Article was received:06-02-2015
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