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Danilenko D.V. Humanism, Punishment and Surveillance. Criticism of M. Foucault’s “Surveiller et punir”

Published in journal "SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences", 2015-1 in rubric "Philosophy", pages 7-27.

Resume: This article is devoted to philosophical research on the origins of modern state surveillance, punishment and, more generally, the evolution of modern criminal law. It is presented as a discussion between the author of this article and Michel Foucault. It develops the idea that humanism has played an important role in the softening of state-sanctioned punishment and in the development of state surveillance over the last 300 years. The article deals with the historical origins of the modern state and the evolution of its relations with the individual; the evolution of government functions; the evolution of criminal law; and human rights and freedoms. It contains a critique of Foucault’s analysis of the evolution of the modern system of criminal law and of his concept of surveillance.

Keywords: punishment, state (government) functions, criminal law, modern law, Michel Foucault, Social philosophy, surveillance, humanism, human rights, freedoms

DOI: 10.7256/1339-3057.2015.1.14410

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There is no better testimony to the fact that the monarch’s right over his subjects was tantamount to a property right that he or she exercised over them than the Magna Carta: “No Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right”. Indeed, words such as “destroyed” applying to individuals is a clear example that human beings at that time were no different from an object (article) whose existence in society was governed by the monarch’s property rights.
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Even today, there are examples of this in reverse: surveillance functions are transmitted back to the private sector. For example, modern fiscal evasion and fiscal fraud surveillance functions are partly exercised by the banking sector and by private financial institutions, and not exclusively by government agencies. The same is true for Internet-related service and product companies as well, which are often accused of collaborating with state security services and, especially, of transmitting personal data to those bodies.
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