Published in journal "Philosophy and Culture", 2014-10 in rubric "History of ideas and teachings", pages 1423-1431.
Resume: The subject studied is the development of Adam Smith’s ideology in the course of his studying science, education, law, philosophy, religion and other branches of knowledge from the Ancient Times to the Early Modern Period. When studying the Ancient Times, Adam Smith adopted the concept of natural equality of all people from sophists of the older generation. The same ideas became famous in France before the revolution of 1789 in the teachings of utopian communists. Adam Smith got an opportunity to get to know them during his trip to France in 1764 – 1767. Smith disproved of their criticism of the private property institution but adopted their concept of natural equality of all people and used it to criticize the vestiges of feudalism in England. The author of the present article has used the method of materialistic dialectics and empiric analytical methods combining deduction wit induction and using each approach according to the targets of the present research. The author has also analyzed the historical struggle between Adam Smith’s theory and different teachings of communism throughout the XVIIIth – XXth centuries and arrived to the conclusion that Adam Smith’s ideas definitely won that centuries-long struggle. In the end, the ideas of scientific communism turned out to be as utopian as all the previous teachings of communism. However, after many generations of struggle the teaching of communism has managed to change the world and destroy the colonial system of imperialism. The Great Patriotic War was won under the banner of communism and soon the nation will be celebrating the 70th anniversary of Victory Day in 2015. Te author’s research of Adam Smith’s ideas from the point of view of the historical struggle of the XVIIIth – XXth centuries is a one-of-a-kind research in the academic literature.
Keywords: philosophy, science, antiphon, equality, utopianism, Stalin, economics, market, state institution, communism.
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