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Burlakova, N. S., Oleshkevich, E. V. The Holocaust Traumatic Experience as Part of the Historical Memory and Identity of the Second Generation

Published in journal "Psychology and Psychotechnics", 2014-9 in rubric "Crowd psychology", pages 922-931.

Resume: The current crisis of the transfer of historical experience conditions the importance of the subject under research chosen by the author: analysis of historical memory, socio-cultural and psychological mechanisms of intergeneration transfer of traumatic experience and their role in formation of the identity of the second generation of survivors in Israel and Eastern Europe after the Holocaust. Special attention is paid to psychological defense mechanisms aimed at restoring national identity that were activated in the process of transfer of traumatic experience at different stages of the development of Israeli society’s attitudes towards the Holocaust, especially that of the Jewish people in Eastern Europe. The authors also discuss stages of integration of traumatic experience into the national identity structure. The research was carried out at the interface between different research methodologies and involved the methods of comparative cultural historical analysis, clinical psychological reflection based on acute social phenomena as well as phenomenological methods of studying evidence and life stories. Based on the results of the comparative analysis, the authors show the complexity and sensitivity of the process of overcoming traumatic experience and describe stages of integration of traumatic experience into the historical memory and peculiarities of formation of the second generation identity. The research of social and psychological mechanisms of identity formation has allowed to define both differences and similarities in how people deal with the memory of traumatic events in different social cultural environments. The authors show that despite common attempts to institutionalize the Holocaust experience, there had been a number of problems related its transfer and integration which was later accompanied with different types of defense mechanisms in other succeeding generations. Individual inter-generation transfer of experience has created a complex internal dialogue in the minds and national identities of the second generation. The authors conclude that the phenomenon of national identity is included both in the historical memory (including different ideological transformations) and socio-cultural situation of modern times which creates particular types of memories, their understanding and ideological interpretations.

Keywords: historical memory, identity, traumatic experience, intergeneration transfer, the Holocaust, the second generation, cultural historical analysis, Israel, Eastern Europe, clinical psychology.

DOI: 10.7256/2070-8955.2014.9.12781

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Gurevich P. S. Kul'turologiya. M.: «Yuniti», 2008.
Emel'yanova T.P. Sotsial'noe predstavlenie kak instrument kollektivnoy pamyati (na primere vospominaniy o Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyne). Psikhologicheskiy zhurnal, 2002, 23(4), 56–66.
Zaytseva O. Nachal'nye etapy formirovaniya pamyati o Kholokoste (1948-1962 gg.). Evreyskoe obrazovanie, ¹1–2 (2004), s. 201-244.
Yeyts F. Iskusstvo pamyati. SPb.: Fond podderzhki nauki i obrazovaniya «Universitetskaya kniga», 1997.
Istoriya i pamyat' / Pod red. L.P. Repinoy. M.: Krug', 2006.
Mamardashvili M.K. Opyt fizicheskoy metafiziki (Vil'nyusskie lektsii po sotsial'noy filosofii). M.: Progress-Traditsiya, 2008.
Meshcherkina E. Povsednevnost' v biografii i ustnoy istorii // Ob'yat' obyknovennoe: Povsednevnost' kak tekst po-amerikanski i po-russki: Materialy VI Fulbraytovskoy gumanitarnoy letney shkoly / Pod red. T.D. Venediktovoy. M.: Izd-vo MGU, 2004. S. 145-162.
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Repina L.P. Istoricheskaya pamyat' i sovremennaya istoriografiya // Novaya i noveyshaya istoriya. 2004. ¹ 5. S. 39 – 51.
Rubinshteyn A. Ot Gertslya do Rabina i dal'she. Minsk, «MET», 2002.
Stefanenko T.G. Etnicheskaya identichnost': ot etnologii k sotsial'noy psikhologii// Vestn. Mosk. Un-ta. Ser.14. Psikhologiya. 2009, ¹ 2. S.3-17.

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