Ðóñ Eng During last 365 days Approved articles: 2031,   Articles in work: 293 Declined articles: 806 
Library

Kulagina, G. N. Narcissism in the Russian Culture of the Early XXth Century as the Expression of the Destructive Beginning of the World

Published in journal "Philology: scientific researches", 2014-2 in rubric "Myth and mythemes", pages 181-186.

Resume: Dominating role of psychology made Russian philosophers and writers of the early 20th century become interest in existential topics. Rehabilitation of life was the main topic for Russian writers of the early 20th century. Certain efforts and super-super narrative are necessary in order to think about that life. The idea of life became the main topic for writers and the main metaphor of the creative act. Philosophizing turned into the ‘universal mission of the humankind’ and the style of life. However, that philosophizing acquired a rather tragic nature. The loss of the meaning of life created by Nietzsche’s statement about the death of God led to the growing interest towards occult sciences and myths. Not only psychiatrists studied different mental disorders and narcisstic neuroses. Catastrophic nature of being has resulted in people fragmenting their life, thinking and action. Moreover, fragmentation has encouraged a man to think about himself as the main person. Researchers share rather ambivalent attitudes to the definition of narcissism. For some researchers narcissism was inevitably connected with the fragmentation of culture and estrangement of the human. Researchers stated that the humanity had very unhealthy relations with their own ‘selves’. However, Christopher Lash had a completely different opinion on the matter. For him ‘narcissism’ was an essential tool of socialization. Researchers define intellectual, esthetic, erotic, political, legal and other forms of narcissism and describe narcissism as the element of poetics and etc. There are culturological, sociological, psychological and other interpretations of the myth. At each stage of the historical development researchers gave their own definition of the myth about Narcissuses. The beginning of the 20th century can be called the ‘epoch of narcissism’. In the Russian culture of the early 20th century narcissism was something more than just an artistic device. In some way narcissism was a response to the nihilism of the epoch. It was the symbol of instability, direction in thinking and a form of existence in the world. and it had antinomies of the Silver Age such as reality and illusion, integration and fragmentation, life and death, subject and object, superficies and depth, activity and passivity, feminine beginning and male beginning, spirituality and physicality, common sense and mental disorder and etc. Narcissism of the epoch had an impact and on the form of artwork, too. Modernism was characterized by narcisstic interest towards language, metaphors, epigrammatism, radical disturbances of the linear pattern of the narrative and the tendency towards subjective distortions. The main feature of the present research is that it is interdiscursive, i.e. open for interactions between philosophy and literature, psychoanalysis, history and art. The dialectic method used in the research is inseparable from the culturalhistorical, comparative-historical and historical-philosophical research methods. The historical-philosophical method is used to analyze artwork in order to reconstruct spiritual and social concepts. Therefore, in the Russian culture of the early 20th century narcissism was something more than just an artistic device. It was the symbol of instability, direction in thinking or a form of existence in the world. We can define intellectual, esthetic, erotic, political, legal and other forms of narcissism and describe narcissism as the element of poetics and etc.

Keywords: narcissus, narcissism, the God complex, Fyodor Sologub, beauty, Salome, Christopher Lash, Zinaida Gippius, Lev Tolstoy, Andreev.

DOI: 10.7256/2305-6177.2014.2.12082

This article can be downloaded freely in PDF format for reading. Download article

Bibliography:
Frederick Rhodewalt & Carolyn C. Morf (2005). Reflections in Troubled Waters: Narcissism and the Vicissitudes of an Interpersonally Contextualized Self. In Abraham Tesser, Joanne V. Wood & Diederik A. Stapel (eds.), On Building, Defending and Regulating the Self: A Psychological Perspective. Psychology Press.
Jeff Livesay (1985). Habermas, Narcissism, and Status. Telos 1985 (64):75-90.
David Kleinberg-Levin (1991). Visions of Narcissism: Intersubjectivity and the Reversals of Reflection. In Martin Dillon (ed.), MERLEAU-PONTY VIVANT. State University of New York?/Maurice Merleau-Ponty in 20th Century Philosophy
Cs Gould (1990). Plato, Eliot, George, and Moral Narcissism. Philosophy and Literature 14 (1):24-39.
Paul Copan (2006). Divine Narcissism? A Further Defense of God's Humility. Philosophia Christi 8:313-325.
Alessandro Ferrara (1992). Narcissism. International Studies in Philosophy 24 (3):114-115.
David Roberts (2013). In Defense of Defenselessness: Kierkegaard's Critique of an Accepted Narcissism. Heythrop Journal 54 (5):n/a-n/a.
Sheldon Pollack (1981). On Glass, "Hobbes and Narcissism: Pathology in the State of Nature". Political Theory 9 (2):257-259.
Arnold Burms (1998). Individual Autonomy and a Culture of Narcissism. Ethical Perspectives 5 (4):277-284.
James M. Glass (1980). Hobbes and Narcissism: Pathology in the State of Nature. Political Theory 8 (3):335-363.
Jonathan Lear (1993). Plato's Politics of Narcissism. Apeiron 26 (3/4):137-159.
Les Todres (2004). The Wound That Connects: A Consideration of “Narcissism” and the Creation of Soulful Space. Indo-Pacific Journal of Phenomenology 4 (1).
Stephen Leighton (2002). Aristotle's Account of Anger: Narcissism and Illusions of Self-Sufficiency.Ratio 15 (1):23–45.
U. May-Tolzmann (1990). Ego and Narcissism Theory Between 1914 and 1922 as It Appears in the International Journal of Medical Psychoanalysis. Psyche 44 (8):689-723.
Antoinette Rijsenbilt & Harry Commandeur (2013). Narcissus Enters the Courtroom: CEO Narcissismand Fraud. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 117 (2):413-429.
Scott Borchers (2005). Revamping Sartre's Original Project: Freedom's Narcissistic Wound. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 36 (1):1-20.
StevenJ Bartlett (1988). Hoisted by Their Own Petards: Philosophical Positions That Self-Destruct. [REVIEW] Argumentation 2 (2):221-232.

Correct link to this article:
just copy this link to clipboard