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Shagieva, R.V., Shagiev, B.V. Law-enforcement activity: theoretical substantiation problems.

Published in journal "Administrative and municipal law", 2014-6 in rubric "Administrative law, municipal law and security", pages 538-549.

Resume: The article includes analysis of law-enforcement activity as a type of legal activity. The authors establish its difference for the human rights advocacy and other types of activities in the sphere of implementation of law. The general theoretical literature provides for a widespread typology of legal activities, where law-enforcement (jurisdictional) activity is regarded as the type of activities in the sphere of implementation of law. However, once one reads more of the literature on the activities of law-enforcement bodies, there is a different approach. Or, to put it more clearly, there is no unified approach to its understanding. The issue of goals of law-enforcement activities, its contents and definition is not legislatively provided for. However, it does have its goals, and they are reflected in a number of legislative acts regarding organizational issues for the fundamentals of the structure and activities of various law-enforcement bodies. Based upon the analysis of federal laws on law-enforcement bodies, one may conclude that the goals of law-enforcement activities may be viably divided into two groups: general goals typical for all of its directions, and special goals, being specific for certain directions. The situation becomes tangled due to the fact that this theoretical characteristic feature of lawenforcement activity and its types does not concern human rights advocacy as a type of legal activity, while this type of activity is currently being recognized as being of great value for the formation of the rule-of-law state. The scientific literature often views the definitions of legal protection and legal defense (law-enforcement and human rights advocacy activities) as being synonymous and capable of substituting each other. All of the above requires a special study of this issue. The activities of the state, its bodies and institutions involves various spheres of life of the modern society. Solving the problems regarding the guarantees of normal functioning of economy, implementation of foreign policy, formation of the conditions for the development of culture, science, and education, support of defense capability and protection of public security of the state, and many other important functions form the contents of this varied and multifaceted activity. The legislation provides for specific goals for some specific types of law-enforcement bodies according to their competence. Some specific goals are achieved within the specific directions (functions) of law-enforcement activity. Taking the above into consideration, one may define the law-enforcement activity as activity implemented or sanctioned by the state for the purpose of protection and defense of law and prevention of its violations by specially empowered bodies via application of legal measures of influence in strict conformity with the law and procedures established by it.1. Defense of the existing legal order. 2. Protection of existing legal order. 3. Prevention of infringements of the existing legal order in a state. If the activities of the state government body or other organization involves only one or two elements, then it probably may not be considered as a law-enforcement activity, and is either human rights advocacy or control and supervision activity. At the same time, the law-enforcement activity should include the entire complex of the above-mentioned elements into its contents.

Keywords: state mechanism, state body, theory of law-enforcement, law-enforcement bodies, human rights advocacy, implementation of law, law-enforcement activity, advocacy, lawfulness, national security.

DOI: 10.7256/1999-2807.2014.6.11376

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